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The Video Guide


Chapter 2

A Grand Tour Of Video Technology

For those of you approaching Video for the first time, a brief historical perspective on the evolution of small-format video systems should provide a clearer understanding of why there are so many different kinds of videotape formats.

Large-Format and Small-Format Video Systems

The terms LARGE-FORMAT or SMALL-FORMAT video equipment generally refer to the size or width of the videotape used on a particular videotape recorder (VTR) or videocassette recorder (VCR). A typical broadcast VTR uses 2-inch wide videotape and would be referred to as LARGE-FORMAT while smaller VTRs, particularly portable VTRs and videocassette recorders using 1/2-inch or 3/4-inch wide videotape are referred to as SMALL-FORMAT video equipment. More specifically, VTRs are also referred to by the size or width of the tape they use. Thus a VTR using %-inch wide videotape becomes known as a %-inch VTR.

The distinction between large and small-format VTRs should be clear enough, but there is the middle ground of 1-inch VTRs which don't really fit easily into either of the above categories. Certain 1-inch VTRs are very sophisticated and can be used for high quality broadcasting and editing, whereas most older 1-inch VTRs are inferior to the more sophisticated 1/2-inch and %- inch VTR systems. 1-inch VTRs are in a category by themselves and are greatly outnumbered by %-inch and '/2-inch systems. Thus our historical tour of video technology will focus primarily on small-format (smaller than 1-inch) VTR systems.




Video really began when Sony discovered America and the first Sony PORTAPAKS (small portable '/2-inch black-and-white VTR s and cameras) landed on the shores of the United States in 1967. The local natives showed considerable amazement when confronted with their own moving pictures and live voices played back to them instantly. Of course this strange device was immediately accepted as the new god of media and video visionaries came from miles around to pay homage, offer gifts, and make tapes wherever these electronic marvels were available.

As more equipment became available, the sales persons whose job it was to market this new technology claimed that video recorders would soon be commonplace in every home, school and business in America. Other Japanese manufacturers joined the bandwagon with their own video equipment and staked claims on the American market place.

Even though they used the same size videotape, these early VT Rs had no common compatibility, so buyers of these first models could play back their tapes only on the same machine on which they were recorded. Some portable models couldn't even do that!

Then, in 1969, Japanese manufacturers finally got together and decided to standardize the '/2-inch videotape format. Now nearly all '/2-inch open-reel or reel-to-reel VTRs (both color and black-and-white) conform to the agreed on EIAJ (Electronic Industries Association of Japan) standard. Sometimes this standard is also called the EIAJ TYPE I STANDARD. Standardization

is not a major problem with cameras and monitors, because they are passive devices and are usually interchangeable and compatible with any type VTR.

Impact on the Market Place

A great video boom came with the standardization of 1/2-inch videotape systems as schools, industry and video groups scrambled to get the "new generation" standardized portapaks and other VTRs. A greatly improved video recording capability also resulted from this standardization. Picture quality, electronic precision, mechanical stability and versatility of the '/2-inch video machines were improved substantially.

Electronic video editing and tape copying now became possible, and tapes made on other manufacturers' standardized VTRs could be played back easily. Program producers could now think seriously about making low-cost videotapes for local, regional or national distribution.

Improvement of 1/2-Inch EIAJ VTRs

Since the introduction of the EIAJ standardized VTR format in 1969, video manufacturers have steadily improved both the equipment and the actual videotape stock. Sony and Panasonic introduced '/2-inch b&w (black-and-white) electronic editor VTRs in 1970 and introduced portable color VTRs in 1972 and 1973.



Nonportable studio 1/2-inch color VTRs also became available during 1972 and 1973.

About this same time, Panasonic introduced a 1/2- inch color editor, the NV-3130, which became a real workhorse for video production and editing.

Second Generation 1/2-inch Electronic Editors

Finally in 1974, Sony introduced the long awaited AV-8650, a magnificent masterpiece of technology that represented the state-of-the-art of 1/2-inch color and b&w production and editing. The Sony AV-8650 featured perfectly clean editing with nearly every kind of edit control feature possible on a'/2-inch VTR.

Not to be outdone, Panasonic soon countered with its second generation 1/2-inch color video editor, the NV-3160. It imitated all the important functions of the AV-8650 but added some very useful additional features:

  • The ability to switch cleanly on the VTR between two camera sources while recording.

  • The ability to lock up several NV-3160s together with a switcher and special effects generator, allowing video material from several VTRs to be fed into a single switching and recording source.

However, the NV-3160 has a slight audio delay following an edit, and Panasonic VTRs in general tend to be slightly less sharp picture-wise than Sony VTRs. On the other hand, Panasonic machines do offer more goodies (features) and sometimes better design characteristics than Sony VTRs.


To keep pace manufacturers improved their cameras too—most notably, the black-and-white portable cameras which utilized a new type of camera tube assembly called an ELECTROSTATIC YOKE. This design eliminated the heavy magnets around the camera tube, allowing considerable reduction in both camera size and weight (to around 4 pounds). These sensitive camera tubes and improved camera circuitry permitted better pictures in both daylight and low-light situations. Most black-and-white cameras are similar in design and newer models have excellent resolution and light sensitivity.



'/2-Inch Cartridge VTRs

Two manufacturers—Panasonic and HitachiShibaden—decided that video users would like to have a VTR that would thread the tape automatically. So they introduced a line of self-threading 1/2-inch CARTRIDGE VTRs. Panasonic referred to its line of 1/2-inch cartridge products as OM N IV IS ION

With a degree of foresight uncommon to the industry, the'/2-inch CARTRIDGE format was designed to be physically compatible with the 1/2- inch EIAJ standard. However, the tape itself would have to be placed in a special cartridge housing if it were to be played on a cartridge VTR. Likewise, the tape had to be removed from the cartridge housing if it were to be played on a non-cartridge VTR.

As it turned out, the 1/2-inch cartridge VTR format encountered a very cool reception from video users, because Sony Corporation (the largest video manufacturer) refused to have anything to do with the cartridge VTR concept at that time. Sony's major commitment was to its own new 3/4-inch VIDEOCASSETTE format. The '/2-inch EIAJ cartridge format did catch on in a small way with real estate training networks and some state hospitals, but the market impact was minor compared with the 3/4-inch videocassette format.

Sanyo Non-EIAJ'/2-inch Cartridge Format

Sanyo Corporation produced a line of 1/2-inch cartridge video equipment that was both unique in design and not compatible, The Sanyo equipment featured a '/2-inch cartridge portapak that recorded 20 minutes of tape in b&w and provided very good quality SLOW MOTION playback of the tape as well. The slow-motion and cartridge capability might tempt users to overlook the serious drawback of incompatibility. A portable slow-motion unit such as this would be useful for sports applications but limited for serious program production.

Akai'/4-Inch and 1/2-Inch Video Systems

Meanwhile, as Sony, Panasonic and the others continued concocting exotic new 1/2-inch technology, still another Japanese firm, AKA! INC., defiantly marketed its 1/4-inch videotape system which was unfortunately compatible with nothing but itself. The maverick company followed right alongside the'/2-inch folks, evolving its black-andwhite '/4-inch portapak and basic editing VTR. Akai later succeeded in mass producing the world's first low-cost hand-held color portable camera in 1973.

The Akai VT-150 portable color camera was indeed a technical breakthrough for video and preceded the first Sony and Panasonic portable color cameras by about two years. As a result, the Akai color camera was improved, adapted for use with theSony color 1/2-inch portable VTR and soon found its way into limited use for news broadcasting on some TV stations.



Akai also offered its own 1/4-inch portable VTR to accompany the camera, but the 1/4-inch format never had much impact on the serious video user who preferred the superior quality and flexibility of the'/2-inch EIAJ format.

In 1977, Akai brought out another industry first—the lightest weight and the most compact 1/2-inch b&w portable videocassette system on the market. A unique modular design system, the VT-300 clearly foretold the future trend in video equipment design. Of course, the VT-300 is a special Akai format and is not compatible with non-Akai systems.

The Videocassette—A Giant Step Forward

In 1972, Sony unveiled the result of many years of hard work and an investment of millions of dollars. The curtain went up on The Age of the Videocassette. Video now could take perhaps the greatest leap forward to date.

The videocassette tape housing has 2 reels inside it as opposed to the videocartridge's single reel of tape. These design differences make the videocassette somewhat larger than the videocartridge tape housing but permit much longer playing times. The videocassette and videocartridge design differences are similar to that of the audiocassette vs. the 8-track audiocartridge.

Although the cassette format was originally marketed as a distribution rather than a production tool, initial reaction to the concept was mixed. "Not another format! Can't they agree on anything? What's going to happen to all my 1/2-inch gear?," users cried in desperation. According to the SOFTWARE (programming) people, vast markets would now open up for educational and entertainment video programming. However, very low-budget video people didn't pay much attention to the videocassette at first because it wasn't portable, you couldn't use it for editing, it was more expensive than comparable 1/2-inch gear, and tape distribution systems already were established on'/2-inch tape.

But as Sony goes, so goes the video world. Within a few years, over 250,000 units of the 3/4-inch U-MATIC (Sony trademark name) videocassette

system were in regular use, mostly in the USA, and the demand for machines often outstripped production.

Several factors contributed to the rapid interest in videocassette systems: the self-contained nature of the videocassette (no threading the tape); the superior picture quality of the system compared with the 1/2-inch format; and the extreme ease of operation.

Sony pioneered and developed the basic loading and operational mechanism of the 3/4-inch UMatic videocassette system. However, numerous other manufacturers sell comparable 3/4-inch UMatic systems that are interchangeable with other 3/4-inch videocassette units, because they all incorporate the same basic internal mechanism under license to Sony Corporation.

Thus JVC, Panasonic, Concord, Wollensak, Telemation, NEC (N ippon Electric Co.) and Sony 3/4-inch systems are all interchangeable with each other. No other 3/4-inch U-Matic videocassette format exists, so if you have a 3/4-inch videocassette, you can play it on any of the 3/4-inch machines made by the companies listed above regardless of model.



It didn't take long for video producers to start complaining about the lack of editing capability of the %-inch format since the original machines were quite basic. Critics praised the color quality of the machines, but felt they could never be made portable and would always lack precise editing control.

Sony Type II Videocassette Technology

In 1974, Sony introduced a second generation U-Matic videocassette recorder called the Type I I. This machine was completely compatible with any other 3/4-inch U-Matic, featured a simplified tape threading mechanism, offered a near broadcast picture quality and had excellent internal mechanical stability.

The first model was called the VO-2850 which cost $6,000 and featured a wide variety of editing functions. Sony also introduced an automatic CONTROLLER-EDITOR (the RM-400) which enabled the operator to edit accurately between 2 VO-2850s. The VO2850 was followed later by the more sophisticated VO-2860/RM-430 editing system which featured additional editing abilities, special Time Base Corrector and dubbing connections, better picture quality and the ability to interface with certain Betamax 1/2-inch videocassette units for editing and duplication.



The original Sony VO-2850 editing system dazzled everyone. As a double whammy, Sony also unveiled its portable %-inch U-Matic, the VC-3800. "They said it couldn't be done," boasted the Sony salespersons, sporting broad smiles that hardly disguised their feeling of

proud satisfaction. As it turned out, the VO2850 and the VO-3800 were to be the foundation elements for a major takeover of film in TV news broadcasting.

Videocassettes and Time Base Correctors

But, good picture quality alone is not sufficient to get %-inch on the air, and editing control of the VO-2850s still was not adequate. So, a device called a TIME BASE CORRECTOR (TBC), developed by Consolidated Video Systems (CVS) in 1973 was mated with the small-format VTR systems to make them viable broadcast production tools.

Soon, aerospace and computer companies combined the Time Base Corrector and videocassette recorders with computer control and memory systems. This achieved perfect editing control with accuracy to a single frame, special effects, dissolves between prerecorded videotapes, and many other useful features.



Birth of ENG

Once easy and precise videocassette editing was achieved, the T BC perfected, and the portable videocassette recorder introduced, ENG (ELECTRONIC NEWS GATHERING) or EJ (ELECTRONIC JOURNALISM) became a reality. Since quality video equipment had become portable and much less costly, TV stations began replacing their film news equipment with the new video technology.

As early as 1974, TV stations began to use the small low-cost Akai color camera for news, and CBS covered Nixon's trip to Russia solely with %-inch videocassette recorders feeding taped video programs directly to the USA via broadcast TV satellites.

Also in 1974, PBS (Public Broadcasting System) aired the first national 1/2-inch color documentary. Downtown Community TelevisionDCTV—of New York City produced the show called "Cuba, the People," using the JVC'/2-inch color portapak. In 1975, a CBS station in St. Louis switched to all-electronic newsgathering, and the great ENG video gold rush was on.

Other ENG Systems

Late in 1974, Sony introduced its own low-cost ($5,000) portable hand-held camera to be used primarily with the VO-3800 portable videocassette recorder. Other manufacturers, such as JVC, also have introduced %-inch technology intended for the broadcast market. The JVC color %-inch portapak features good quality color recording and reproduction and offers an automatic in the camera editing feature as well, which allows the camera operator to edit as he shoots. See Chapter 13 — ENG and Portable Videocassette Systems.

The relatively high cost of %-inch editing and portable videocassette color equipment prevented most small format video producers and low budget educational/institutional users from taking advantage of the improved quality systems. As a solution to this problem, SONY soon introduced a full line of lower priced sophisticated Type II videocassette recorders and players.



Prices of these machines ranged from $1,200 to $3,600 and all units included new tape loading and transport systems and improved picture quality. Additional features such as touch-type solenoid controls and full LOCK OUT LOGIC in control functions made it impossible to push the wrong button at the wrong time. JVC and Panasonic followed suit and introduced their new improved models also.

The impact of this full range of 3/4-inch video technology has yet to be felt. Sony added further improvements and sophistication to the VO-2850 videocassette editor (called the BVU-200). The BVU-200 features more precise electronic circuitry and special tape transport operations and cueing functions. A few thousand dollars also have been added to the price tag. These very so

phisticated VT R s are intended exclusively for TV broadcasters.

Nevertheless, using TBCs and 3/4-inch technology, a complete basic color broadcast TV studio and remote control operation could be established for $80,000 to $100,000 (less a transmitter)—figures which are unbelievably low, since TV broadcasters are accustomed to spending a minimum of half a million dollars to get on the air.

This means that over-the-air TV broadcasting stations are now within the financial reach of many public groups. A real problem is how to get allocation of a TV channel, because there are very few available. Nevertheless, lower costs for television equipment hopefully will lead to a wider variety of television programming and a areater minority anneal.


Home video systems have always been the logical extension of the home entertainment/ informational concept — especially to video manufacturers. For several years, though, there was much talk about a VIDEODISC system that would open up the lucrative home market to video. The Videodisc people were convinced that images recorded on cheap plastic discs could be sold less expensively than comparable programs on videotape, and the videodisc player systems would be less expensive and more practical than videotape systems.

The Betamax Video System

Rumors about the impending videodisc revolution led Sony engineers to burn the midnight oil to come up with an affordable home videotape system to compete with the videodisc. Originally the 3/4-inch U-Matic was intended to be that home videotape system, but inflation, an economic slump, and pressure by producers to improve the -inch system for master production and editing caused Sony to go the other way, increasing the cost and sophistication of the U-Matic instead of simplifying it. In addition, the cost of blank tape alone — $25 to $35 an hour — clearly eliminated any possibility of the -inch format ever having a future on the home market. Enter THE BETAMAX!

The first Betamax was a console model which included a 1-hour only recorder and a 19-inch Trinitron TV set. The Betamax incorporated its own separate TV tuner so you could watch one program on the TV set and record a different program on the video recorder using its own separate tuner. Home video was born!

This first 1-hour system was soon followed by other 1-hour systems and then a whole assortment of 2 and 4-hour home video systems—unfortunately not all compatible with each other.

All 1/2-inch home video systems, with the one exception of the original Sony LV-1901, are stand-alone deck-type models which connect to any standard TV receiver. All systems contain built-in TV tuners, input connectors for video cameras and microphones for live recording and provide a wide range of special features such as digital programmable timers, multiple recording and playback speeds, search functions, freeze frame, remote control and automatic unattended recording capability.

There are 2 major opposing 1/2-inch home videocassette formats — the BETA Format and the VHS or VIDEO HOME SYSTEM format. The newer Beta home VCRs have a 2 and a 3-hour recording time (2X and 3X) on a single cassette and a 1, 2 and 3-hour (1X, 2X and 3X)



playback mode. Early Beta VCRs and all Sony industrial 1/2-inch industrial VCRs operate in a 1-hour mode only. All industrial VHS recorders operate in a common 2-hour Standard Play (SP) mode only. Most newer home VHS machines record and play in 2/416- hour modes. About 70% of all home VCRs are VHS machines, and 30% are Beta machines. The faster speed (1-hour Beta or 2-hour VHS) modes produce better picture and sound quality than the long play modes of 4 and 6 hours because a faster moving tape can store more information.

Accessories and Programming

Low cost portable black and white cameras are available for less than $300, and portable color cameras range from $600 to $1,400. Lightweight portable VCRs are becoming increasingly popular, and a wide range of cameras, VCR accessories and prerecorded programming are available through most home video dealers. Check out their catalogs.

Compatibility of Home Video Systems

All home videocassette systems utilize a 1/2-inch non-EIAJ videocassette that is hardly larger in size than an audiocassette. The tape speed of the 2-hour Betamax format is a mere .79 inches per second, and the picture and sound quality is truly remarkable for such a compact machine using such slow moving tape. The quality of the taped off-the-air program is nearly indistinguishable from the original broadcast.

VCRs using the Beta format include all Sony, Sanyo, Toshiba, Sears and Zenith VCRs. VHS manufacturers and distributors include Panasonic, JVC, MGA, Sylvania, Hitachi, Magnavox, Quasar, RCA, GE, Sharp and others. Tapes made on the Beta format machines can not be played on VHS format machines in any mode and vice versa. Retail price of 1/2-inch VCRs range from $700 to $1,500 depending on features. Tape prices vary from $15 for a 1 or 2 hour tape to $25 for a 2/4/6 hour tape.

%-Inch Cassette vs. 1/2-Inch Cassette

A logical question then comes to mind. Why invest in %-inch technology if the 1/2-inch format is so good? At present, the %-inch format is intended primarily for industrial/educational and broadcast master production and editing applications. The %-inch format is more accurate both mechanically and electronically; has better picture quality, is better suited to editing and has industry acceptance as a proven and standardized technology.




As you can see, most of the technology of video involves magnetic tape systems. Another way to record pictures is on videodiscs. The videodisc recording concept has several unique capabilities. Discs take up very little space and in large quantities can be Manufactured at a much lower cost than magnetic tape. Discs are also ideal for random access; that is, indexing a section in the middle of a tape without having to wind through hundreds of feet of material. TV networks regularly maintain very sophisticated videodisc systems for instant replay of sports and for special slow-motion or stop-frame effects on TV specials. These elaborate disc systems cost from $40,000 to $100,000 each.

Several manufacturers have been working on a number of playback only videodisc systems for home use. Unfortunately, all the designs so far have been incompatible with each other. But with the videodisc, standardization is a must before it can become a household reality because it is completely dependent on pre-recorded programming.

Two kinds of videodisc systems exist, the OPTICAL type which employs a laser beam to scan and recover the electronically encoded information recorded on the disc, and the CAPACITANCE type which uses a stylus and tracking arm, like a conventional record player, to pick up picture and audio information from the disc.

The first videodisc system actually marketed was the Magnavox videodisc player which was introduced in 1979. Since the Magnavox system is a joint venture with the big entertainment company MGA, it's not surprising that most of the playback material is comprised of Universal feature shows. in 1980, about 150 titles were being offered.

Pioneer also produces a compatible and very similar optical disc system. The consumer model is called the VP-1000 "LaserDisc," and the industrial model is called "DiscoVision." Both the Pioneer and the Magnavox systems provide 1-hour playing time on each side of the disc, reverse and fast forward play, fast or slow motion in forward or reverse, freeze frame, a single frame forward and reverse, rapid picture search and stereo sound. In addition, the Pioneer systems offer random access capability, infrared remote control for all functions (optional) and a digital PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM) audio adapter (optional) for super quality stereo sound.

The laser systems are capable of better picture and sound quality than a 1/2-inch VCR (330 lines of picture resolution vs. 240 lines). Each of the 54,000 frames of information on a disc is indexed with a number so the player can refer to a single frame in seconds. Because each circular groove on the disc holds one frame of picture information, and the pickup laser does not actually contact the disc, a single frame can be scanned for an indefinite period of time, unlike a VCR. It has been said that all the books in the Library of Congress could be recorded on 100 optical videodiscs.



Optical discs are extremely rugged, can tolerate smudges and fingerprints and can be dropped without damage as the electronic information is imbedded inside the plastic. However, mastering of optical discs is a complex and sophisticated process, and quality control has been difficult. It is an expensive process and lends itself only to large scale production at present. Compatible optical disc players are produced by Pioneer, Magnavox and Sony. Sony's optical videodisc player is intended for the educational/industrial market, and it has the ability to be used with the Sony VIDEO RESPONDER, a device which allows 2-way interaction between the user and the video program.

RCA has been working for a long time on a simpler mechanical capacitance-type system which, like the Magnavox/Pioneer system, plays one hour on each side of the disc but uses a diamond stylus for pickup. The RCA system reads the information in the disc grooves on an uncoated disc which rotates at only 450 rpm vs. 1800 rpm for the optical system. The RCA "SelectaVision" system also includes visual search and rapid access features.

Unfortunately, the initial RCA system is monaural only, but more expensive stereo models will be introduced later. Since the RCA disc is a contact-type system, the discs and the stylus will eventually wear out. However, RCA says the stylus will last "hundreds of hours" and the disc "one hundred plays." The uncoated disc is inserted into the machine by means of a plastic sleeve. The disc is removed from the machine by reinserting the plastic sleeve. The RCA disc system is very compact, weighs only about 20 lbs., uses easily replaceable off-the-shelf parts and has a price of under $500.

Both JVC and Panasonic offer the Video High Density/Audio High Density (VHD/AHD) videodisc system which uses a 10-inch videodisc housed in a plastic sleeve which is inserted into the player unit. The system is stereo and produces a high quality picture and excellent sound. Like the RCA system, the V H D/AHD disc system is a capacitance type system and has a 2-hour playing time capacity. The VHD/AHD disc contains no grooves, revolves at 900 rpms and supposedly can withstand over 100,000 plays. It uses a sapphire or diamond electrode which has a life of over 2,000 hours because It is a non-contact system. The stylus is guided by electronic signals over a series of "pits" engraved in the discs.

Because the disc is grooveless, the stylus can move rapidly and randomly thereby allowing normal and high speed forward and reverse motion, still frame and slow motion. The player is an ingenious modular system which can be purchased as a basic unit for simple videodisc playback only, or optional random access and PCM modules can be purchased also.

Videotape Vs. Videodisc

Because tape and discs are really related in the sense that they are both electronic mediums, they can work to mutual advantage. Video programs will always be recorded on film or tape in the for-seeable future and edited in the film or tape mode and then copied on videodiscs. The potential of the videodisc really lies in the low-cost distribution of programming, not in the production of programming, as this is better done by videotape or film.

Disc Mastering

The optical videodiscs of the Magnavox/ Pioneer/Sony systems require very complex technology to mass produce. The discs for the RCA, JVC/Panasonic systems, on the other hand, can be pressed out rather easily from a single master rather like the audiodisc manufacturing process. All videodiscs are manufactured from polyvinyl-chloride (PVC), one pound of which costs about $1.50 and can make 35 discs. Discs weigh much less than film or tape, can be shipped and stored easier, and are less susceptible to damaging environmental conditions. They can be duplicated very easily and rapidly on a large scale, unlike videotape which requires long lengths of tape, an expensive plastic cassette, and necessitates real time copying. (It takes one hour to copy a one-hour videotape.)


We know from studies made that TV shapes human behavior. It is therefore obvious that we need alternatives to present media programming. New technology integrated into a receptive social environment on a large scale can bring about considerable change. This change will not necessarily guarantee human progress. Hopefully, the videodisc will not merely proliferate more visual and aural trash but instead will broaden the range of constructive information and communication between people. This is the real media challenge of the future.










TV broadcasting begins



16,500 TV sets sold

TV manufacturers


First practical black-and-white VTR



First generation 1/2-inch portable VTR introduced to market



First practical color VTR (2-inch)



Video transmission live from moon



Standardization of /cinch videotape



Standardized full function'/2-inch portable and 1/2-inch editor VTR



Radical Software Magazine published

Raindance Corp.


Public Access Cable TV programming begins

Teleprompter Corp.


First video feature movie—"200 Motels"

Frank Zappa


Frequent use of 1/2-inch videotape on Cable TV

Video groups


First use of 1/2-inch videotape on Broadcast TV—Republican

TVTV (Top Value


National Convention



Commercial production of %-inch videocassette recorders



Low-cost color video projection system marketed



Introduction of the Time Base Corrector



"Video, The New Wave," - 1 hour documentary on '/cinch video and



Video Art broadcast on PBS system



First low-cost color portable camera



Editing Y2-inch color VTR



CBS uses ENG system for news; portable I kegami camera used with



IVC 1-inch VTR and TBC



Introduction of 2nd-generation videocassette recorder—V0.2850

and full-function high-quality automatic videocassette editing system



Introduction of first portable 3/4-inch videocassette recorder—V0-3800



First national 1/2-inch color documentary, "Cuba, The People," pro-

duced by DCTV using JVC'/2-inch color portapak



First viewer sponsored TV station KVST-LA



TRI and CMX automated and computer editing systems for 3/4-inch



ENG well underway—networks purchase and regularly use %-inch

video equipment for production and editing



Introduction of Betamax home video system



More TV sets than telephones or cars-364 million TV sets worldwide

TV manufacturers


Introduction of full line of small-format broadcast video equipment



Beta ("B") 2-hour and VHS home 2/4-hour videocassette recording

formats introduced

Sony, Matsushita


First practical home portable VCR and color camera—VHS format



Introduction of home videodisc player



First low-cost home satellite TV receivers




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