all four sides. The paper is made by dipping the MOLD (1) , of the size required, into the vat containing the stock, and then lifting it out with a particular motion, thus causing the fibers to bond together forming a sheet. Because of the methods employed in lifting and shaking the mold, handmade paper often has very little discernible grain orMACHINE DIRECTION , which means that it has more or less the same strength properties in both (all) directions. It is therefore unlike machine-made paper, which is much stronger in the machine direction than in the cross direction. Handmade paper is also generally superior to machine-made paper in that it is usually sized with gelatin, glue, or similar material, without the use of rosin or alum. It is relatively very expensive because, from the pulp stage, all of the operations are performed by hand and in single sheets; in contrast to the papermaking machine in which paper is felted, couched, pressed, dried, sized, calendered, and reeled in one continuous operation. For general information concerning paper, see: PAPER ;PAPERMAKING . See also: COUCH (1 , 2 ); DECKLE ;FELT (1) ;WATERMARK .
(79 , 287 , 320 )