Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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machine direction

The direction in which the greater number of the fibers of a sheet of paper tend to be oriented as a result of the forward motion of the wire of the papermaking machine. The paper so produced is stronger in the machine direction, and also experiences less dimensional variation in the machine direction due to changes in humidity. The direction at right angles to the machine direction is known as the CROSS DIRECTION . Also called grain or "grain direction." (82 )

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