JAIC 1992, Volume 31, Number 1, Article 3 (pp. 17 to 22)
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Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1992, Volume 31, Number 1, Article 3 (pp. 17 to 22)




Alhborn, R., and V.Espino3la, eds.1991. Russian copper icons and crosses from the Kunz Collection: Castings of faith. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Antonova, V. I., and N. E.Mneva. 1963. Katalog drevnerusskoi zhivopisi. 2 vol. Moscow: Isskustvo.

Espinola, V. B.1987. The technical examination of Russian icons and oklads. ICOM preprints, 8th Triennial Meeting, International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation, Sydney, Australia.3:1105–1108.

Filatov, V. V.1961. Russkoye stankovoya tempernaya zhivopis': Tekhnika i restovratsiya. Moscow: Isskustvo.

Lelikova, O. V.1980, 1984, 1987. Director and researcher, Tempera Division, VNIIR, Moscow. Personal communications.

Naumova, M. M.1980. Physicist and researcher of old Russian pigments, VNIIR, Moscow, Personal communication.

Nikolayeva, T. V.1977. Early Russian painting in the Zagorsk Museum. Moscow: Isskustvo Art Publishers.

Ovchinnikov, A. N.1980. Director and researcher, Tempera Division, Grabar Center, Moscow. Personal communication.

Riasanovsky, M. V.1969. A history of Russia, 2d ed.New York: Oxford University Press.


VERA BEAVER-BRICKEN ESPINOLA received a B.I.S. in Russian studies from George Mason University and an M.A. in museum studies with a concentration in ethnographic and archeological object conservation from George Washington University. She interned in the Anthropology Conservation Laboratory of the Smithsonian Institution. Fluent in Russian, she received an International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX) grant to study Soviet conservation techniques in Moscow, Novgorod, and Leningrad in 1980. A conservator in private practice in St. Petersburg, Florida, she has worked for museums such as the Smithsonian Institution, Hillwood, and the Timken Gallery, and for churches and private collectors as well as on exhibits, legal, insurance, and environmental problems concerning Russian icons and objects.

Copyright � 1992 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works