Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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1. Defects in paper appearing as small punctures which are caused by fine particles of alum, clay, sand, etc., being crushed and falling out 1. when the paper is calendered. Very hard grit may also be imbedded in the steel rolls of the calender itself and produce pinholes at each revolution. 2. Large pores in a thin paper where fine fibrous material or fillers fail to fill the voids between larger fibers. 3. Minute almost imperceptible pits in the surface of a coated paper. 4. Very small transparent dots which appear in a lithographic paper after development and which, unless covered by an opaque medium, may affect printing. 5. Very small holes in a fabric. 6. Small punctures found in the untrimmed margins of printed books and caused by the pins attached to the tympan used in obtaining perfect registration of inner and outer forms. They are usually not seen in folios because they are in the fold, unless, as in some very early books, there are two pairs of pins, in which case they will be seen in the center of the top and bottom margins of each leaf. In quartos they will be in or very near the crease of the head BOLT , and evidence of them can often be found even if the bolt has been opened. In octavos they appear in the lower fore edge margins of the first four or last four leaves of each GATHERING (2) and are also discernible even if the bolt has been opened. See also: POINT (5, 6). (17 , 341 )

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