Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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1. In machine-made paper and board, the direction in which the majority of the fibers are oriented. See: MACHINE DIRECTION . 2. In leather, the term is used primarily to indicate the top or outer, i.e., hair side, layer of a hide or skin that has been split into two or more layers. A "grain layer," is just that portion of a skin that extends from the surface exposed by removal of hair or wool and epidermis, down to about the level of the hair or wool roots. It can also mean the follicle pattern visible on the outer surface of a skin after the hair or wool and epidermis have been removed. See also: GRAIN PATTERN . 3. In cloth, the "grain is the direction of the WARP threads. (143 , 234 , 291 , 320 , 363 )

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