Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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1. The total number of leaves, whether numbered or unnumbered, contained in a book or manuscript. 2. The numbering of the leaves of a book or manuscript. Foliation was relatively rare until the last quarter of the 15th century. It consisted originally of the word Folio, or an abbreviation, followed by a Roman numeral. Arabic figures were used in Italy between 1475 and 1500, and outside Italy after 1500. Eventually the Arabic came to be used alone. The numbering of pages (pagination), as opposed to leaves, began to replace foliation near the end of the 16th century but was not finally established until the 18th century. Reference to a page in a foliated book is generally done by using r and v for recto and verso, e.g., 1r or 1v, or by the use of a and b. e.g., 1a or 1b, the latter being preferred because manuscript v is often mistaken for r. Abbreviated ff. See also: PAGINATION . (140 , 156 )

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