Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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A smaller and subsidiary WATERMARK found in antique papers, usually in the opposite half of the sheet to the watermark. It usually consists of the name or initial of the papermaker, the date, and the place of manufacture, although small devices such as a small post-horn or cabalistic signs have been used. The countermark was introduced in the 17th century. (69 , 156 )

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