Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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arabic numerals

The numerical symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, as distinguished from the Roman I, X, L, etc., so called because of their origin in the Near East. They have been used in the foliation of books since the late 15th century. Arabic numerals first appeared in European manuscripts in the 12th century, although they probably came to the Near East by way of India in the 8th century. Arabic numerals are commonly used for paginating the text of a book, although Roman numerals are still often used for preliminary and end matter, despite the obvious affectation. (156 )

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