The Resources on electronic/digital art focus primarily on records and documents in electronic form, whether digital or analogue, and to the use of digital technologies as a preservation tool, ("Digital Preservation").
Resources covering works of art involoving electronic media and technology whether in production or as components of the work may also apear here but will likely be broken out into their own Topic area in the future. They may also be found elsewhere in CoOL, especially in Conservation Resource at Other Sites. Material in this class is, very roughly, a subset of that covered by Art and Archaeology Techncal Abstracts classification category G13.
"The workbook provides a comprehensive overview of digital preservation issues and practice and will be of interest to ditigitisation projects and curators in museums, libraries, archives, and the cultural heritage, research and publishing sectors.
"Keeping digital objects means copying, standards, and legal challenges. This is a process, not a single step. Libraries have to think of digital collection maintenance as an ongoing task. It is one that gets steadily easier per bit; last generation's difficult copying problem is now easy. However, the rise of more complex formats and much bulkier information mean that the total amount of work continues to increase. Our hope is that cooperation between libraries can reduce the work that each one has to do."
"Libraries can improve accessibility and reduce costs by converting their old materials to digital formats.". This is the original version of and article published in Scientific American, March 1997. See also published version
"Abstract: People like looking at pictures. Scanning is cheaper than keyboarding. These two facts have encouraged many to design scanning projects, as a way of converting information to machine-readable form for access and preservation. This does not mean that everything should be scanned: images are also bulkier than text and less easily processed. This paper will address practical issues in scanning and manipulating images, addressing the fact that technology in some areas has outrun our knowledge of how to use it. Just because your scanner has a 2400 bpi choice in its menu, that does not mean it should be invoked, for example. Our experience on the CORE project suggests that people can read images as rapidly as other forms of scientific articles, and that 300 dpi is good enough. The main questions in image systems are bandwidth, screen display, and cataloging. The most important possible tradeoff is whether fast enough display will compensate for our inability to search images effectively."
"Abstract: Does it yet make economic sense for a library to replace its books with electronic copies? How should this be done? This talk reviews the balance between the cost of building shelf space and the cost of scanning, both of which are now approaching $30/volume (from opposite sides). Scanning old books just about makes economic sense now, and should be widespread in a few years.
"A pattern has emerged in starting presentations on the preservation of electronic materials: Disaster! In 1975, the U.S. Census Bureau discovered that only two computers on earth can still read the 1960 census. The computerized index to a million Vietnam War records was entered on a hybrid motion picture film carrier that cannot be read. The bulk of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's research since 1958 is threatened because of poor storage. These tales are akin to Jorge Luis Borges's short story in which the knowledge of the world is concentrated in one mammoth computer - and the key is lost.
The essential question for the Information Age may well be how to save the electronic memory (Stielow: 333).
A wonderfully rich compilation of information on formats, current and past, for data, software, and hardware. Coverage includes graphics, 3d graphics, movies/animations, archive formats, binaries, spreadsheet/database, financials/stocks, fonts, games, text/documents, Internet related formats, sound and music, Windows, GIS formats, communications formats, printer formats, hardware formats, etc.
"The report follows up Dr. Rothenberg's 1995 article in Scientific American, "Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Documents" by elaborating the author's proposal for emulating obsolete software/hardware systems on future, unknown systems, as a means of preserving digital information far into the future. The report, and the research agenda it proposes, will be of interest to managers of digital information resources in libraries and archives, computer scientists, and to all those concerned about the preservation of intellectual resources and records in all formats—including government records, medical records, corporate data, and environmental and scientific data.
In the author's view, the emulation approach is not just a promising candidate for a solution to the problem of digital preservation, but the only approach offering a true solution to the problem. In the report, he explores the problem of long-term digital preservation, spells out the criteria for an ideal solution, and analyzes the shortcomings of other solutions (printing and preserving hard copy, translating digital documents so that they migrate into new systems, reading them on obsolete systems preserved in museums, or relying on standards to keep them readable). Then he describes how to encapsulate a document so that is can be decoded by an emulator, the sequence of events required to preserve the document and to read it on future systems, and the techniques that need to be developed in order to make emulation work."
"The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective" is the first in a series of international symposiums that are supported by a grant from Documentation Abstracts, Inc. (DAI). The institutes, presented by CLIR will address key issues in information science relating to digital libraries, economics of information, or resources for scholarship.
"This volume of conference proceedings is from the April 2002 symposium. Included are the following essays:
- Introduction: The Changing Preservation Landscape, Deanna Marcum
- Overview of Technological Approaches to Digital Preservation and Challenges in Coming Years, Kenneth Thibodeau
- The Digital Preservation Research Agenda, Margaret Hedstrom
- Understanding Digital Preservation: A Report from OCLC, Meg Bellinger
- Update on the National Digital Infrastructure Initiative, Laura Campbell
- Experience of the National Library of the Netherlands, Titia van der Werf
- Digital Preservation—A Many-Layered Thing: Experience at the National Library of Australia, Colin Webb
- Good Archives Make Good Scholars: Reflections on Recent Steps Toward the Archiving of Digital Information, Donald Waters"
"ARL endorses digitization as an accepted preservation reformatting option for a range of materials. This paper was prepared to facilitate the development and implementation of policies, standards, guidelines, and best practices where they do not currently exist."
"The CENDI STI Manager is a reference collection being developed by CENDI to provide access to high-quality materials (primarily web-based) related to the management of scientific and technical information, particularly within the U.S. government. The collection is intended for researchers, students, information scientists, policy makers, educators, and members of the public interested in the creation, dissemination, use, and preservation of scientific and technical information world-wide. This site is maintained by the CENDI Secretariat."
CENDI is an interagency Working Group composed of Senior Scientific and Technical Information (STI) managers from nine major programs in eight U.S. Federal Agencies:
"ERPANET works to enhance the preservation of cultural and scientific digital objects through raising awareness, providing access to experience, sharing policies and strategies, and improving practices. To achieve these goals ERPANET is building an active community of members and actors, constructing authoritative information resources, promoting training, and providing advice and tools.
Resources include: Workshops and training, advisory services, case studies, abstracts
Highlights of GAO-02-586, a report to Congressional Requesters
"ISO has undertaken a new effort to develop standards in support of the long term preservation of digital information obtained from observations of the terrestrial and space environments. ISO has requested that the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Panel 2 coordinate the development of those standards."
GPO is holding a series of meetings to develop specifications for the digitization project. The first meeting of experts on digitization and digital preservation was held at the GPO in Washington, DC in March 2004. The meeting brought together practicing experts in the field of digital format conversion and digital project development to discuss the current standards and specifications for the creation of digital objects for preservation and to put forward a proposed set of minimum requirements for digitizing documents for this project."
"In March 2002, the Wellcome Trust and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) awarded a contract to UKOLN to undertake a feasibility study into web archiving. The aims of this study were to provide the Wellcome Trust and the JISC with:
- an analysis of existing web archiving arrangements and to determine to what extent they address the needs of the UK research and FE/HE communities
- recommendations on how the Wellcome Trust and the JISC could begin to develop web archiving initiatives to meet the needs of their constituent communities.
The study produced two reports
See also American Memory Project
"In line with the ISIS mission the advanced digital storage laboratory is focused on working with the industry, government and academia to support interoperability and reliability of optical discs, to provide the US disc industry with standards, to improve safe preservation of digital information, and to develop new technology for next generation data storage. The research presently being conducted in the advanced digital data storage laboratory can be represented in five main areas/projects:
- A testbed for optical disc reliability;
- A traceable industry standard for DVD reflectance calibration for the DVD industry;
- Working with Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) on the MultiRead test program for improvement of interoperability for all optical discs;
- For the purpose of data preservation, a study of life expectancy for writable and re-writable optical discs in under way;
- A study of 3-D data storage technology.
From Introduction"As a community, we have spent more than two decades painstakingly pursuing the highest quality in our digitization of primary resources. Through Google Books, the Open Content Alliance, and similar efforts, book collections are flying off the shelves and finding their way to users in digital form. In a world where it is increasingly felt that if its not online it doesnt exist, we need to make sure that our users are exposed to the wealth of information in special collections....
"Scaling up digitization of special collections (here defined as non-book collections, such as photographs, manuscripts, pamphlets, minerals, insects, or maps) will compel us to temper our historical emphasis on quality with the recognition that large quantities of digitized special collections materials will better serve our users. This will require us to revisit our procedures and policies. Should we be digitizing for both preservation and access, or optimizing procedures primarily for access? How can our selection approaches help us maximize both throughput and impact? Have projects produced reusable infrastructures? What is the appropriate level of description for online materials? How can we make smart partnership agreements in order to build a collective collection that will be valued by a broad audience?
"This essay endeavors—like the "Digitization Matters" forum that inspired it (see Appendix)—to challenge its audience to take a fresh look at approaches to extending access to the special collections in libraries, archives, and museums. The forum speakers were asked to be provocative, not to represent what they or their institutions have done, but to focus on ideas for significantly increasing the scale of our digitization activities. Because of this somewhat unusual approach—and because so many of the ideas were further developed in the open discussions—we're not providing attribution for each idea, but rather summarizing the outcomes of the forum as a whole.
"The essay, like the forum, focuses on digitization and related processes, but intentionally does not encompass technical specifications for various formats, born digital materials, nor rights issues (which warrant similar essays for each topic). It intends to be provocative. Not all of the ideas presented here will apply to a particular situation, but hopefully they will stimulate consideration of appropriate ways to move forward.
Special collections are stuck in an eddy, while the mass of digitized books drift by in the current of the mainstream. We need to jump into the flow or risk being left high and dry."
Formerly: Public Records Office Digital Preservation Department
"PRONOM File Format Registry is a resource for anyone requiring impartial and definitive technical information about the file formats used to store electronic records, and the software products that are required to create, render, or migrate these"
"Stimulated by intense interest in the archival and records management professions and supported by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences has conducted a research project to examine variables that affect the integration of recordkeeping requirements in electronic information systems. This project was intended to examine one means to rectify such problems. The major objectives of this research project were to develop a set of well-defined recordkeeping functional requirements -- satisfying all the various legal, administrative, and other needs of a particular organization -- which can be used in the design and implementation of electronic information systems. The project also proceeded to consider how the recordkeeping functions are affected by organizational policies, culture, and use of information technology standards, systems design, and implementation."
"The AV Artifact Atlas is for use in the identification and definition of the technical issues and anomalies that can afflict audio and video signals. "The goal of AVAA is to advance the audiovisual archiving field generally by strengthening the practice of reformatting archival media content. Archivists can improve the outcomes of their media preservation efforts if (they can properly identify and characterize signal issues and anomalies. With a tool to facilitate building a vocabulary of terms and supporting examples, archivists will learn and be able to communicate about the problems with more clarity and understanding. With this understanding, it is more likely that fixable problems will be fixed, limited resources will be directed more appropriately, and the products of reformatting workflows will be of higher quality. "The idea to create a community-based, online resource emerged while a group of media archivists attending the Association of Moving Image Archivists 2010 annual meeting were discussing quality control over vegetarian po'boy sandwiches at the Reading Terminal Market in Philadelphia. We were frustrated by the lack of an accessible resource covering these issues, one that can be used to support and inform quality control processes in archival media reformatting workflows. We realized that if (we gathered together our clipped examples of media issues, pooling our knowledge on the subject, and then shared it as a community resource using wiki software, we might begin to fill the glaring gap. Partners in the effort to bring about the AV Artifact Atlas include: Bay Area Video Coalition, New York University Digital Library Technology Services, Stanford Media Preservation Lab. "
The InterPARES Project is borne out of previous research carried out at the University of British Columbia's School of Library, Archival and Information Studies.
The project is a response to the increasing demands within the archival community to develop theories and methodologies for the permanent preservation of authentic electronic records.
"Stanford Libraries is building "persistent access" software for libraries. The project is called: LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe). The project is currently funded by the National Science Foundation, with contributions from Sun Microsystems, Inc. and Stanford University. This software will allow libraries to archive immutable materials delivered over the web. It will be freely distributed and will run on a small/cheap PC. Current United States alpha sites include: Stanford University, University of California Berkeley, Harvard University, Columbia University, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The prototype is in pre-alpha test. Alpha testing is scheduled for Spring 2000.
"The Report on the Meeting of Experts on Digital Preservation: Metadata Specifications is a summary of the second of two meetings held to assist GPO in developing specifications for the digitization project. This meeting, focusing on descriptive and preservation metadata, was held at GPO on June 14, 2004. A summary of the overall discussion of the experts and the necessary resources for the metadata package submission are included in the report. Also included is a listing of metadata elements that is not meant to be viewed as a final list of required metadata elements, but a list of metadata elements, based on this discussion and the recommended readings as put forth in the meeting. It provides a common set of elements from which to build for digitization project.""
"This 52-page PDF document is intended to prompt consideration and discussion worldwide. To help achieve an international consensus and shape next steps, we need dialog on the standards, criteria, and mechanisms for certifying digital information repositories...." "While intended primarily for research institutions and specifically for libraries and archives, this report contains guidance and recommendations applicable to any organization interested in long-term maintenance of and continuing access to digital materials. It highlights some key strategic issues as it focuses on practical assistance to administrators and implementers of digital archiving services"
Preweb is intended to be an international discussion list and link collection on Preservation of the WorldWideWeb. It is a joint initiative of the National Libraries of Sweden, Netherlands and Australia and run by the Kulturarw3 Project of the Royal Library of Sweden. It started in August 1998 and is under construction.
Abstract: There are innumerable departmental, community, and personal web sites worthy of long-term preservation but proportionally fewer archivists available to properly prepare and process such sites. We propose a simple model for such everyday web sites which takes advantage of the web server itself to help prepare the site's resources for preservation. This is accomplished by having metadata utilities analyze the resource at the time of dissemination. The web server responds to the archiving repository crawler by sending both the resource and the just-in-time generated metadata as a straight-forward XML-formatted response. We call this complex object (resource + metadata) a CRATE. In this paper we discuss modoai, the web server module we developed to support this approach, and we describe the process of harvesting preservation-ready resources using this technique.