- National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA)
Storage Report: Reflections on National Digital Stewardship Alliance
Member Approaches to Preservation Storage Technologies. by
Micah Altman, Jefferson Bailey, Karen Cariani, Michelle Gallinger,
Jane Mandelbaum, Trevor Owens. May 2013
"The structure and design of digital storage
systems is a cornerstone of digital preservation. To better
understand ongoing storage practices of organizations committed
to digital preservation, the National Digital Stewardship
Alliance conducted a survey of member organizations. This
article reports on the findings of the survey. The results of
the survey provide a frame of reference for organizations to
compare their storage system approaches with NDSA member
- Jim Linden, Sean Martin, Richard Masters, & Roderic Parker
- The large-scale archival storage of digital objects, Digital Preservation
Coalition (DPC), Technology Watch Report, Feb. 2005
"This report describes the issues surrounding storage
technology from the perspective of a digital repository. It covers the
British Librarys thinking that led to conclusions about the design of a
system for the preservation storage of digital objects, and the
specific conclusions about the preservation storage architecture to
adopt. The planning figure for the storage required was that it would
grow to over 100 Terabytes (100 thousand gigabytes, or 100 million
megabytes) in 3 years."
- Public Records Office (PRO)
- Selecting Storage Media for Long-Term Preservation (Word document)
Optical disks, CD-Roms, etc.
See also Glossaries, and
- The CD-Info Company
- Das PhotoCD-Forum
- In German. Das Wichtigste zur PhotoCD.
- Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) and
Ecma International (Ecma)
- Standard ECMA-379
Test Method for the Estimation of the Archival Lifetetime of Optical Media (June 2007)
See Full text (PDF)
- Luis Facelli
- Disco Video
Digital (Digital Video Discs), 2004. PowerPoint presentation, in Spanish
- Anne R. Kenney and Oya Y. Rieger
Using Kodak Photo CD Technology for Preservation and Access: A Guide
for Librarians, Archivists, and Curators
Care, and Handling of CDs
- Permanence of Kodak Photo CD and
Writable CD Media with Infoguard Protection System, June 1993
Photo CD Technical Papers
Information on Kodak CD-R Media
- Media Sciences
- Frequently Asked Questions About Compact Discs
- ISO Standards
- Links for
Professionals (News and Technology, Technical Support, Test Equipment,
- Jerome L. Hartke
- Measures of CD-R
- CD-R Media
- National Archives and Records Administration
- Long-Term Usability of Optical Media The
National Archives and Records Administration and the Long-Term
Usability of Optical Media for Federal Records: Three Critical Problem
- Development of a Testing
Methodology to Predict Optical Disk Life
Expectancy Values (Summary)
- National Institute of Standards and Technology
- Government Information
Preservation Working Group (NIPWG)
Study of Optical Discs (PDF)
- DVD FAQ
- CD-Rom/CD-Audio/Game Console Discs
- Linda Schamber
- Optical Disk Formats: A Briefing.
- NanoArk Corporation
- Baztak Oztan, Guarav Sharma, Ajay,
Pasupuleti, P.R. Mukund
of Degraded Documents for Long-Term Archival Using Waferfiche Technology,
Archiving 2009, IS&T, Arlington VA, May 2009
- Ampex Virtual Museum and Mailing List
"Dedicated to preserving the history of the most important
manufacturer of magnetic recorders, the Ampex Virtual Museum
provides online access to:
Schematics, and Service Bulletins
Maintenance, and Modification Tips
Brochures, and Similar Literature
history & Other Historical
for Uploading and Downloading Ampex-related Files"
- Audio Engineering
Society Historical Committee
Audio Timeline: A selection of significant events, inventions,
products and their purveyors, from cylinder to DVD
Interviews and Talks
- 3M Analog
Magnetic Tape Technology
- Delos A. Eilers
to 3M Audio Open Reel Tape List
- 3M Audio
Open Reel Tapes. 2000
- Jay McKnight
Selected Bibliography of
Histories of Magnetic Tape Sound Recording
Audio Mastering Tape Print-Through. Technical Bulletin A011194
Acquires Ampex History Collections. Nov. 2001
- Ellen McCrady
- NARA Conference on Preserving Tapes & Disks, March 1996: Facts and
Advice from the Speakers (Abbey NewsletterVolume 20, Number 6
NML (Now Imation Government Services
Note: The NML historical materials have a nasty habit of winking
in and out of visibility on the Web. The info below is the latest
I have, but if the past is any indication, the material has
probably been moved or removed.
The National Media Lab (NML), is "an industry resource supporting
the U.S. Government in the evaluation, development, and deployment of
advanced storage media and systems. NML endeavors to provide a broad
perspective of current progress in information technology issues, both
from a commercial and a government perspective."
"Imation is continuing the work of the National Media Lab (NML) through the Imation Government
Supports NASA on Space Shuttle Columbia Data Recovery April 2003
- Koichi Sadashige
Storage Technology Assessment - 2002 Projections through 2010
- Roger J. Anderson
Speed Tape Mechanics December 1996
- Dr. John W. C. Van Bogart; John Merz, eds.
Thomas Electronic Records Disaster Recovery Effort November 1995
- Dr. John W. C. Van Bogart
Tape Storage and Handling — A Guide for Libraries &
Archives The Commision on Preservation and Access June 1995
- Martin Vos; Gary Ashton; John Van Bogart; Ron Ensminger, eds.
& Moisture Diffusion in Magnetic Tape Packs March 1994.
Originally published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 30, No.
2, March 1994. IEEE Log Number 9214603
- Devora Molitor
Methods for Helical Scan Recorders
- John W.C. Van Bogart & Leon D. Wald
Storage Technology Assessment Final Report. See especially: Archival
Stability of Digital Storage Media
- John W.C. Van Bogart
of Damaged Magnetic Tape and Optical Disc Media. Presented at "Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery of Audio, Film, and Video Materials"
A Library of Congress Symposium, September 21, 1995
- Koichi Sadashige
- Data Storage Technology Assessment 2000
- Part 1. Current
State and Near-Term Projections for Hardware Technology. Part 1
2. Storage Media Environmental Durability and Stability
of Damaged Magnetic Tape and Optical Disk Media
Presented at "Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery of Audio,
Film, and Video Materials", Library of Congress, September 21, 1995
- Robert D. Lorentz
Thin Film Media Final Report
- SIGCAT Foundation and Doculabs, Inc.
Recording: A Troubleshooting Handbook
- Doculabs, Inc.
of CD-R Media, Reader and Writers
Storage Conditions for Magnetic Tape. 1997.
- Information on
Storage Media Longevities: Disposition Charts (life Expectancy of
Various Information Storage Media (magnetic tape, optical disk, paper,
microfilm) for storage at various Temperature and RH levels)
- Questions & Answers
- How long do digital data storage media last?
- I have several tapes ranging in age from 2 - 8 years which are
unreadable halfway through the tape due to sticky shed. I would like
to get more information regarding the tape baking process for the
recovery of degraded tapes. Do you have any suggested sources?
- I have a collection of audio masters recorded in the 1970's.
They have developed the "sticky shed" syndrome. If I store these
tapes in a sealed container over a desiccant, will this cure the
- What are the life expectancies of 3.5" and 5-1/4" floppy disks?
What are the optimum storage conditions for floppy disks? (We know
that floppy disks are not recommended for archival storage, but they
are commonly used to store data from PC's.)
- What is the sensitivity of magnetic media to temperature
extremes? For example, at what temperature is magnetic tape likely
to be damaged by fire?
for Transfer and Restoration of Video and Audio Tape
Particle Tape and AMPEX DST (tm) Media Guide
Tape Technology Final Report
Other NML documents
Some NML documents no longer be available from NML, but are
available at other sites:
of Archival Stability of Recording Media
- Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR)
- Magnetic Tape
Storage and Handling: A Guide for Libraries and Archives, June
Can Go Wrong with Magnetic Media?
Information Loss: Multiple Tape Copies
Life Expectancy: How Long Will Magnetic Media Last?
Can You Prevent Magnetic Tape from Degrading Prematurely?
Guide to the Care and Handling of Magnetic Tape
of Magnetic Tape Life Expectancies (LEs)
- Colossal Storage Corp.
- 3D Volume Holographic Optical
Data Storage NanoTechnology
- John H. Hong & Demetri Psaltis
holographic storage promises fast access, Adapted from Laser
Focus World, April 1996 p. 119.
- IBM Almaden Research Center
- Lucent Technologies
- Lucent, Imation
Developing Bell Labs Holographic Storage Technology
- Rene Millman
- Storage enters the third dimension
- Margaret Quan
- Holographic storage nears
debut, EE Times, April 26, 2001
- Tom Thompson
Holographic Storage. Sidebar to When Silicon Hits Its
Limits, What's Next?, Byte, 1996.
- Caltech Optical Information Processing Group
Holographic Data Storage
- Hesselink's Research Group (Stanford)
Responses to "Ensuring the Longevity of Digital Documents"
In the January 1995 issue of Scientific American, an
article by Jeff Rothenberg appeared, with the headline "The digital
medium is replacing paper in a dramatic record-keeping revolution. But
such documents may be lost unless we act now". The following responses
were sent as letters to the editor of Scientific American
and are reproduced here with the permission of the authors.
- Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)
- The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) was formed by the
Joint Committee on Inter-Society Coordination (JCIC) to establish
voluntary technical standards for advanced television systems,
including digital high definition television (HDTV). ATSC suggests
positions to the Department of State for their use in international
standards organizations. ATSC proposes standards to the Federal
- International Federation of
Television Archives (FIAT/IFTA)
- The International Federation of Television Archives (FIAT/IFTA)
is a non-profit association of Television Archives, set up on June
13th, 1977 in Rome by the BBC, RAI, ARD, and INA.
Frequently Asked Questions
See also Video Preservation
- John W.C. Van Bogart
- Magnetic Tape Storage Glossary
- The CD-Info Company
- Compact Disc Terminology
- Steve Cunningham and Judson Rosebush
- CD-ROM Glossary
- Octave Systems, Inc.
- The CD
- CD-Rom Glossary
- DVD Glossary