[Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing and finding citations by subject. Addresses of publishers like TAPPI , IPST or Pira can be found in the list of Useful Addresses sent out to each subscriber. To find out how to get a copy of a given paper, call the Abbey Publications office.]
Glossary of Printing and Papermaking Terms. 1996. 206 pp., published by CPPA. Item no. 08CPGPPT. ISBN 1-8967742-04-1. $12 to members and nonmembers.
This is a revision of The Glossary of Printing Terms for the Papermaker, published in 1980 by CPPA. It was a joint CPPS/ TAPPI project. Special emphasis is on terms and topics most often misunderstood between printer and papermaker. (1C1)
"Magazine Papers." Paper Focus vol. 11, no. 121, Dec. 1996, pp. 18-19. (Paperbase Abstracts #2190, 1997)
The abstract says, "Magazines are the fastest growing medium of the 1990s, with one new title being launched every day. The industry uses around 800,000 tons per year of paper, accounting for 15% of all graphic paper consumption. This article discusses the papers available, together with their attributes and manufacturers. (1C4.5)
"A Method for the Deacidification of Papers and Books," by Steven R. Middleton, Anthony M. Scallan, Xuejun Zou and Derek H. Page. TAPPI Journal vol. 79 #11, Nov. 1996, p. 187-195.
This is the method described in "Paprican's Dry Deacidification Method," published in the Alkaline Paper Advocate in 1995 on p. 33. In this method, acidic records or book pages are interleaved at intervals with alkaline paper, under pressure, with high humidity. (It also works with moderate pressure and ordinary humidity but it takes longer.) The principle by which it works is similar to the "acid migration" that leaves a brown area the size and shape of a newspaper clipping stored between pages of a book, except that it is "alkali migration."
The paper has some nice graphs of pH and residual acid content, showing how they change as treatment progresses, or as the RH changes. It is easier to read than the patent was.
There are 29 references, 19 of which are from the conservation literature, or known to the field.
A note at the end says, "A patent has been issued on this process (Page, Scallan, Middleton and Zou, U.S. pat. 5,433,827, July 18, 1995). It is, however, the intention of Paprican to offer all libraries a royalty-free license to use this technology on receipt of a written request." (2D5)
Silver Tarnishing by Paper and Paperboard. TAPPI Test Method T 444 om-96 (Atlanta, GA): 3 p. (July 18, 1996).
This testing method, an "official method" (om) revised in 1996, describes a procedure for identifying papers and paperboards that will stain or tarnish silver or other metallic surfaces. ASTM D 2043 is a related method.
ISO is now formulating a standard for "archival board" that will not degrade papers stored next to it. This standard may overlap in function with the TAPPI test method. (3A9.7)
"Fundamental Research Concerning Tear Resistance of Pulps and Papers. III. Influence of Chemical and Physicochemical Parameters," by A. Cochaux, A. D'Aveni and A. Robert. Cellul. Chem. Technol. vol. 29 #5, Sept.-Oct. 1995, p. 631-642. (In French)
The tear index depends upon both physical and chemical characteristics. There was no direct relation between the average degree of polymerization based on viscosity over a reasonable range and the tear index. The tear index is affected by a) the amount of lignin, which is hydrophobic; and b) hydration and transformation of weak points into dislocation areas. (3A9.7)
"A Comparison of Methods Used for Measuring the pH of Paper," by Leanne Brandis. AICCM Bulletin (Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material) vol. 18 #3-4, 1993, p. 7-17.
Four extraction and a number of surface methods using pH indicators were used to determine the pH of five types of paper. The author used only one pH pen, the Abbey pH Pen®. However, she made the explicit but mistaken assumption that indicator solutions react on dry paper the same as they do in solution; so she ignored the visible transition interval (6.0 to 6.7 or 6.8) printed on the pen, interpreted the colors on the basis of the values provided in the literature and in the manufacturers' descriptions (5.0 to 6.5) and concluded that pH pens were not reliable on some alkaline paper. She also published the wrong color changes (yellow to red) for chlorophenol red when it is used on the surface of paper. All the manufacturers assume you will be using it in solution, where it will go from yellow to red; in actuality, on the paper surface it never goes to red in the alkaline range. It always goes to purple.
"Physical Testing: A Fresh Look at old Habits," by D. Wayne Bichard. TAPPI Journal vol. 79 #10, Oct. 1996, p. 199-202.
The author is head of the Physical Testing Section at Paprican. He is tired of seeing requests for tests devised many decades ago, for special purposes or kinds of material (e.g., groundwood pulp) that are quite different from typical purposes or materials today. Unnecessary testing, faulty interpretation of test results, and the setting of irrelevant or unrealistic product specifications, also irritate him, and rightly so. He discusses a number of cases in point: the Canadian Standard Freeness test, originally designed more than 50 years ago to control manufacture of groundwood pulp; pulp screening tests, designed to catch shives, which are extremely rare in the chemical pulps with which they are used today; and tests to determine fiber length, which used to work well with groundwood, but which do not work well with chemical pulps. Although they are the wrong tests for finding what the user wants to know, pulp producers express great concern when they are not met.
The Elmendorf type tear test measures resistance of a sheet of paper to crack propagation resulting from a tearing force out of the paper's plane. But it would be more relevant to end use if in-plane tear resistance were measured. The MIT folding tester is widely used to test security paper, though coefficients of variation of 10-25% or even higher are common for replicate determination of the number of double folds. [Note - He does not acknowledge either of the time-saving fold methods that address this problem. One method was devised by Phil Luner and some of his students (see Literature section in this issue), and another was by H. Bansa and H.-H. Hofer, "Increase of Paper Permanence by Treatment with Liquid Ammonia or Ammonia Solutions: Part 3, Testing of the Usability of Papers." This appeared both in the Preprints for the 1980 conference of the Institute for Paper Conservation, and in the 1987 published proceedings (Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, G. Petherbridge, ed.; Butterworths).]
This paper is full of quotable passages. Here is one: "Some solution lies in educating users of test data. Official test method organizations can contribute by evaluating the legitimacy of existing test methods. If appropriate, they can consolidate duplicate methods and reclassify or eliminate the more ambiguous ones.1/4 Users of test data also must realize the limitations of the test methods they use and develop a knowledge of the significance of differences in test results." (3A9.7)
TAPPI Test Methods, 1996-1997. A bound collection of testing procedures containing all the Official Test methods, Provisional Test methods, Classical Methods and Standard Practices that have been published by TAPPI. Includes a numerical listing of methods, reference materials list, proficiency testing program, test equipment suppliers, a supplier directory, a listing of test laboratories and research facilities, safety sources, and a subject index. Item #: 0104TM96. List price: $135. Member: $90. This is also available on CD-ROM. Call TAPPI Press, 1-800/332-8686. (3A9.7)
"Aging of Book Paper," by YH. Xu. Pap. Pap. Making no. 2: 51-52 (March 1995). In Chinese.
Ancient Chinese books have stayed in good condition for thousands of years, but modern books have deteriorated quite rapidly. The author reviews the relationship of all aspects of the papermaking process, including pulping, bleaching, sizing, chemical additives, and storage environments, and strategies are provided for prolonging book life. (3B1.1)
"Alkaline Hydrolysis of Cellulose. Part I: Without Chemical Additives," by A. Cochaux et al. Rev. ATIP v. 50, No. 4, 1996, p. 148-156.
Cellulose hydrolysis in an alkaline buffer is governed by two things: the peeling reaction and the breakage of intramolecular glucosidic links of the cellulose. The results are 1) a decrease in molecular weights and 2) a decrease in the weight of the sample. Four factors in alkaline hydrolysis were examined: temperature, treatment duration, buffer alkalinity, and addition of anthraquinone. (3B1.2)
"Factors Affecting Permanence. (1). Environmental Conditions for Accelerated Aging," by R. Cardwell, W. Metzer and P. Luner. Suny College of Environmental Science and Forestry, ESPRI Research Reports, no. 45:V (Syracuse, NY): 20-21 (September 8, 1967).
Cycling paper between high and low temperature accelerates the drop in strength (fold, tear, rupture load, burst, Young's modulus) compared with continuous aging for a corresponding length of time. The presence of moisture accelerates aging to a very large extent. Springwood fibers aged faster than summerwood fibers. Restraint of the sheet during drying made no difference in the speed of aging. Aged sheets that are wetted and then redried regained a considerable percentage of the strength lost during aging.
This was a pioneering study of the effect of cycling temperature and RH on paper. Note the early date (1967). This line of work has been continued at the Library of Congress. (3B1.21)
"Studies on Paper Permanence. (1). Evaluation of a Fold Test Procedure," by R. Cardwell, L. Lyon and P. Luner. Suny College of Environmental Science and Forestry, ESPRI Research Reports, no. 53: IV (Syracuse, NY): 29 (March 1, 1971).
This is a comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting the fold test. A close linear correlation between the logarithm of test load and fold enables one to calculate fold values at loads otherwise impracticable or unreliable. Only 20 fold tests are required to find the basic data needed. No significant information is lost when the suggested procedure is used in place of the conventional test. (3B1.26)
"Measurement of In-Plane Fracture Toughness of Paper," by R.S. Seth. 1996 TAPPI Papermakers Conference, Preprints, p. 395-398.
Currently this characteristic is measured by the Elmendorf or Brecht-Imset tear tests, which the author considers to be questionable because they are unrealistic. In the real world, stresses are applied in the plane of the sheet, but the usual tests pull the paper apart at an angle of 90� from the plane of the untorn paper.
A simple but time-consuming test intended primarily for tough ductile sheets is described. For newsprint and other printing grades, a method published in 1979 and based on the "quasistatic crack propagation technique" is recommended. (3B1.26)
"Stages in Deterioration: The Examples of Rubber Cement and Transparent Mending Tape," by Robert L. Feller and David B. Encke. Preprints of the Contributions to the [IIC] Washington Congress, 3-9 Sept. 1982: Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation, edited by N.S. Brommelle and Garry Thomson. Published by the International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London, 1982. P. 19-26.
The sudden death of an artifact is a type of event that shows up in our poetry and folklore (the Wonderful One-Hoss Shay that ran for a hundred years to a day, and the grandfather's clock that stopped short, never to go again, when the old man died); but it is easy to assume that nothing like that ever happens in real life. Most people think that all deterioration takes place at a steady pace. Organic materials, however, often decay precipitously, and we never notice or take into account how the rate of decay has suddenly accelerated until it is too late. Feller and Encke describe in detail how rubber cement and transparent mending tape show an "induction time" during which no change seems to be taking place, and how at some indeterminate time after that, the pace of deterioration abruptly accelerates. The conservator's job is to treat the object while it is still in the induction phase, because it is much harder to do later on. This means that collections have to be monitored as they age, to catch them in time.
The stages for rubber cement are as follows. Numbers 2 through 5 are evidence of oxidation.
1) Discoloration; 2) Weight gain (handy for monitoring the collection and planning treatment); 3) Increased polarity or solubility parameter of adhesive; 4) Hydroperoxide formation; 5) Final, highly oxidized state; and 6) The sticky stage.
Also discussed are the effect of light, induction time under natural aging conditions, and transparent mending tapes.
Feller discusses this same phenomenon, but with more graphs, and 4 plots of oxygen uptake (linear, autoretardent, autocatalytic and combination or S-curve), in "Stages in the Deterioration of Organic Materials," in John C. Williams, ed., Preservation of Paper and Textiles of Historic and Artistic Value (Advances in Chemistry Series 164). P. 314-335. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1977. (3B1.22)
Table 2, "Strength Properties," in the preprints of the 1996 TAPPI Papermakers Conference gives formulas for converting from customary units of measurement form for paper properties and test methods to the units recommended by ISO 5651. Tearing strength and tear index (formerly "tear factor") are both there. Tearing strength used to be in grams-force, and should now be millinewtons. This is the measure that nearly every mill lab uses, although there has to be a different target strength for every basis weight, because it does not take basis weight into account.
The old way of computing tear index is as 100 grams-force per (gram per square meter) [100 gf/(g/m2)]. The new way is recommended in ISO 5651, and is calculated as millinewton sq. meters per gram [mN . m2/g]. Both ways take basis weight of the paper into account, so that a single value can be used for all papers. The recommended form does not use preferred SI (International System) units, but the ISO committee chose it because it is simpler and easier to use.
Conversion factors are provided. To convert from the old tearing strength measure to the new, multiply the gf by 9.80665. To go from the old tear index to the new one, multiply by 0.0980665. (3B1.26)
"The Effect of Ageing of Waste Paper on the Deinking Efficiency," by P.I. Lunabbe, A.M. Pettersson and I.V. Eriksson. 5th International Conference on New Available Techniques. World Pulp and Paper Week, Stockholm, Sweden, 4-7 June 1996, Part I, p. 179-188. (Stockholm: SPCI) 1996, 1996.
The authors wanted to find out how old newspapers could be, before problems arose in the deinking process. When newsprint was new, all deinking processes worked about the same. After 7 to 10 months of aging, however, the best deinking chemicals reduced final brightness by only 3 to 4 units. The poorest chemicals reduced final brightness by twice as many units. Deinking efficiency fell after one month of aging, with recycled newsprint. (3B1.4)
"Retention Mechanism of Metal Cations in Recycled and Never-Dried Pulps," by Said M. Abubakr, Bjorn F. Hrutfiord, Thomas W. Reichert, and William T. McKean. TAPPI Journal vol. 8 #2, Feb. 1997, p. 143-148.
This paper is so succinct and well-written that it is hard to summarize. Here are some excerpts:
"Metal cations occur naturally in wood, and they can be added inadvertently during the papermaking process. Even in trace amounts, metal cations can affect paper properties. Changes in virgin fiber quality, the movement to chlorine-free bleaching, and the increased use of recycled fibers have focused attention on the effects that metal cations have on many paper grades.
Multivalent cationic metals reduce fiber swelling by compressing the electrostatic double layer or by lowering the osmotic pressure arising from cationic movement. The loss in swelling hinders bonding and leads to a weaker sheet. A better understanding of the mechanism for cation retention would help in the effort to reduce the quantity of metal ions and improve paper strength."
"Significant recycled fiber content decreases paper strength. The presence of cations is one reason that paper made from recycled fibers forms a weaker sheet.1/4 [Also,] during the drying of first-generation papers, fiber hornification occurs as the fiber walls shrink and form internal and external hydrogen bonds. In water, paper made from hornified fibers loses strength as a result of less bonding."
The metals included in the study were barium, calcium and sodium. Test papers were washed with alkaline, neutral and acidic washwaters. All metals were removed with acidic washwaters, but not with alkaline or neutral waters. (3B1.5)
"Synthetic Papers - Help the Printer Answer Difficult Market Needs." Paper Focus vol. 11, no. 121, Dec. 1996, pp. 16-17, 22. (Paperbase Abstracts # 2278, 1997)
Three types of synthetic paper are described: extruded film, synthetic fibers spun and bonded with pressure and heat, and products made by conventional papermaking methods, but using synthetic fibers, sometimes mixed with cellulose fibers. They have great strength and durability plus resistance to water and chemical contaminants. Some of the better known branded papers on the UK market are discussed, together with their manufacturers. (3B2.16)
"Step Into the World of Papermaking." (Video, 10 or 15 minutes) Georgia-Pacific Papers, Communication Papers Division, 6/94.
This is obviously a promotional and public relations piece, primarily, not an informational piece.
The description of papermaking is skimpy. The digester is described, but bleaching (a major process, one of which nearly everyone is aware) is not mentioned at all. Viewers are given the impression that pulp comes out of the digester white. (This is probably a deliberate omission. Criticism from environmentalists has made bleaching a sensitive issue.) Another sensitive issue is forestry practices. The section on trees emphasizes that they always plant more trees than they harvest, and lets it go at that.
The video gives the impression that waste paper comes from the dump, whereas it is actually diverted (collected) before it gets to the dump. Technical terms are not introduced; they say "spools" instead of "rolls." Converting is given about 45 seconds. Viewers get to see the end result, but they don't see any converting being done. There seems to have been an attempt to avoid exposing the viewer to any new knowledge.
Technically, the video is pleasant to look at, professionally done, and easy to play on a video player-you push it in, and it plays. But high schools may have very little use for it, because of its lack of content. The world is still waiting for a good film or video that shows how paper is made. So many aspects of papermaking are interesting, even fascinating, that it is hard to see why this has not been done in the last 10 or 20 years. (3B3)
Chemistry of Paper, by J.C. Roberts. 2nd ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, 1996. 190 pp., £15.95 (ISBN 0-85404-518-X) (Paperbase Abstracts #1275, 1997)
The first edition, published in 1991, had 234 pages. This edition covers composition of paper, lignin chemistry and removal, cellulose fiber networks, the paper formation process, surface chemistry of paper and the papermaking system, chemical additives in the paper formation process, surface modification of paper, cellulose recycling, and papermaking and the environment. (3B3)
"Study on the Neutral and Alkaline Sizing of [Pulp Using] Cationic Emulsified Wax Size," by M. Lin et al. China Pulp Pap. 15, no. 3: 15-20 (May 1996). (In Chinese, with English summary)
In experiments that compared the sizing performance of a cationic emulsified wax size (CEWS) vs. a conventional rosin acid sizing system, it was shown that the CEWS can be used for sizing at pH 5.5-10.0. The CEWS was 2.5 times more efficient than the rosin size. Total retention and fines retention also increased by 21.98% and 48.31%, respectively, compared to the rosin size. (3B3.4)
"The Advantages of Alkaline Sizing," by P. Capo. Papel vol. 57, no. 4, Apr. 1996, pp. 22-25. (In Portuguese) (Paperbase Abstracts #7699, 1996)
The author gives these reasons for making alkaline paper: 1) increase in brightness and whiteness of the paper, 2) increase in opacity, 3) a notable increase in the permanence of the brightness and resistance properties, guaranteeing a longer life, 4) greater bulk which makes the paper more rigid and allows a reduction in grammage, 5) greater resistance so that mineral fillers can be increased, reducing costs and increasing machine speeds, and 6) the method is less polluting. (3B3.44)
"A New Internal Sizing Concept - Improvement of AKD Performance through Use of Hydrophobic Amphoteric Polymers," by U. Riebeling. Wochenbl. Papierfabr. vol. 124, no. 22, end Nov. 1996, pp. 997-1002 (In German) (Paperbase Abstracts # 2091, 1997)
AKD is known for its tendency to hydrolyse in water to ketone, causing deposits in the paper machine and slippery paper surface. This tendency can be reduced by use of a hydrophobic amphoteric polymer sizing agent (PLA), which increases size retention and results in more stable sizing.
Another paper on this subject, by Prinz, De Clerq and Riebeling, was given at about the same time at a conference of the Association Technique de l'Industrie Papetiere. It bore the title, "A New Way of Effective Wet End Sizing." (3B3.4)
"Mechanism of Rosin-Ester Sizing for Alkaline Papermaking," by A. Isogai, K. Ito and F. Onabe. 1996 International Paper and Coating Chemistry Symposium, Ottawa, Canada, 11-13 June 1996, pp. 131-134 [Montreal: Canadian Pulp & Paper Association, 1996, 257 pp. C$40. (ISBN 1-895258-98-3)] (Paperbase Abstracts, #9110, 1996)
"Overview of Talc Usage as Paper Filler," by P.E. Valero and J.E. Holton. 1995 Dyes, Fillers and Pigments Short Course, Chicago, 26-28 Apr. 1995, pp. 111-115.
High filler levels are possible with talc, which preserves internal strength, reduces dye and sizing demand, enhances machine runnability and productivity, and improves water resistance particularly for rotogravure printing. (3B3.44)
"Responding to the PCC Challenge," by D. Guest. Pulp Pap. Int. vol. 38, no. 9, Sept. 1996, pp. 53-55. (Paperbase Abstracts #323, 1997)
Sizing technology is changing, as a result of changes in raw materials, paper machine design and operation, and customer requirements. Wet end chemistry is hard to monitor because of the number of additives used and the complexity of the interactions among them. In addition, PCC-containing furnishes need more sizing in the wet end because the size wants to bond to PCC as well as to the cellulose. Increasingly, not only sizing, but other additives too are being applied to the surface of the paper in the size press, which is located in the dry end of the paper machine, in with the dryer rolls.
[Sometimes the size press additives stay on the surface, and sometimes they saturate the paper web. If the paper has been made at an acid pH, and it receives an alkaline coating in the size press, a spot test with a pH indicator may not give accurate results, even if the paper is split to show the inner layer for testing. -Ed.] 3B3.44
"Neue Papierhilfsmittel auf Zeolith-Basis (New Zeolite-Based Paper Additives)", by K. Ivanov and K. Heinzel of Zeochem GmbH. Wochenbl. Papierfabr. 124, no. 16: 699-701 (Aug. 31, 1996) (in German). (Abstr. Bull. IPST, #7519, 1996)
The advantages of zeolites (adsorption, ion-exchange capacity, pore structure) are combined with the cationic effect of polyaluminum chloride in paper additives marketed under the name Zeopac. In wastepaper-containing pulp systems they are useful for eliminating a variety of problems with anionic trash.
Another paper on zeolites is ABIPST Abstract #6761, which is about the use of zeolite as a substitute for talc in the manufacture of newsprint. Unfortunately, it is written in Chinese. (3B3.44)
"Effects of Aluminum Salts on the Permanence of Paper Containing Lignin," by J.R. Phipps. Manchester, UK: University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 1995. (R11652) (Paperbase Abstracts #8485, 1996)
This MSc thesis reviews the use of aluminum salts in pulping, how paper properties are affected, the aging of paper and its chemistry, drainage, and the retention of alum. [The abstract says tensile, fold and pH were tested, but it does not say the paper was aged to observe how these changed. It also does not say anything about how aluminum salts affect the permanence of paper containing lignin.] (3B3.45)
"Passing the Acid Test," by Thomas J. Kraner. Publishers Weekly, Aug. 19, 1996, p. 28-29.
The author summarizes a study done in late 1995 by Jaakko Poyry Consulting on the paper-buying plans of 65 publishers. He also reports comments made by Barbara Goldsmith (who campaigned successfully for alkaline paper five years ago with U.S. book publishers), Jim Thompson (of Thompson Avant International, a consulting and marketing firm) and Ellen McCrady (editor of the Alkaline Paper Advocate), on the papers being used for book publishing. He concludes, in short, that alkaline paper is being used for the great majority of books published in this country, but recycled paper has become less popular because of its cost. (3B3.6)
"RMAN Levels for Paper Products" is a table on p. 4 and 5 of an 8-page document from the EPA, 401 M St. SW (5306W); Washington, DC 20460. June 1996. Call RCRA Hotline at 800/424-9346 to order.
Twenty to 50% of the content of printing and writing paper bought for government use must be recovered (recycled fiber). The kinds of paper covered are:
The recovered content and post-consumer content are the same, or virtually the same, for all these categories.
Other categories (newsprint, paper towels, carrierboard and so on) have to contain from 15% to 100% recycled fiber. (3B3.63)
"Government Influence on the Recycled Paper Industry," by Fran McPoland. Progress in Paper Recycling, Feb. 1997, p. 11-12.
On December 31, 1998, the level of recycled paper purchased by the U.S. government will increase to 30%. The President is displeased that we are achieving only an 18% compliance rate among the federal agencies for recycled copier paper. Consumption is low because of the difficulty of bringing about change in the government's ways of doing business, but also because of price and quality of recycled fiber. The author expects the compliance rate to increase in the next six months. (3B3.63)
"Use of Sulphonated Reclaimed Fibers from Newspapers in the Manufacture of Newsprint," by K.N. Law and J.L. Valade. Conference Technologique Estivale 1995, Quebec, Canada, 31 May-2 June 1995, pp. 39-48. [Montreal, Canada: Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, 1995, 123 pp., $30 (ISBN 1-895288-83-5)] (In French) (Paperbase Abstracts #2365, 1997)
It is forecast that sulphonated waste paper will be used in writing and printing paper in the near future and will totally replace thermomechanical pulp fibers. Sulphonated waste paper can replace the chemical fibers in newsprint, improving the newsprint's quality.
The tests used old offset printed newspapers about one month old, mainly manufactured from thermomechanical and resin pulps. Comparisons were made between nonsulphonated, sulphonated unbleached, mechanical, thermomechanical, and bleached kraft pulps. Alkaline sulphonation gives the best pulp characteristics compared with neutral and acidic sulphonation. (3B3.64)
"Wood Supply's Stunted Growth," by B. Simon and C. Brown-Humes. Financ. Times #32,920. 28 Feb. 1996, p. 14 (Paperbase Abstracts, # 3269, 1996)
Several European and North American chief executives met privately during the Canadian Pulp & Paper Association conference in Montreal in January 1996 to discuss fiber supply, which is now a mainstream industry concern. The authors think it may have been behind the rise in paper prices in 1994-95. Mills have been importing pulplogs from Chile and Alaska, or buying up sawmills and cutting rights to their surrounding forests. (3B3.7)
"Recycled Capacity Floods Market Despite Potential Fiber Shortage." Pulp & Paper, April 1997, pp. 65-68, 70-71.
Twenty deinked pulp facilities have been built at North American printing/writing paper mills over the period 1991-97. About six of them use groundwood waste paper, and the rest use white office papers. But there is a glut in recycled fiber supplies. Consumer demand has been low for the last two years, and will not be able to keep those 20 deinked pulp facilities busy. (3B3.72)
"Bleaching with Dimethyldioxirane: A Review of Its Fundamentals," by J. Bouchard, J. Chen and D.S. Argyropoulos (Paprican). Paper presented at the ACS meeting in New Orleans March 24-29, 1996. A novel class of cyclic peroxides, namely dioxiranes, has been identified for chemical pulp bleaching as part of a TCF (totally chlorine-free) sequence. It delignifies kraft pulps without affecting their strength properties. (3B3.8)
"Fractionation of Recycled Pulp Obtained from Mixed Paper," by Mutombo Muvundamina and Minlan Li. TAPPI Journal vol. 80 #2, p. 149-153.
Flotation shows promise as a means of separating recycled pulps into chemical pulp and mechanical pulp fractions. The ability to separate secondary-fiber furnishes into chemical and mechanical fractions would allow papermakers to allocate the different fiber fractions to their most productive end use. Fibers are sorted out not on the basis of their size and density but on the basis of their surface properties, namely wettability. (Lignin has a low polarity and a low wettability when it interacts with water.) (3B3.8)
A. Ahlstrom Oy, a Finnish company, has patented a new bleaching method that will make it easier to close up the system in mills making totally chlorine free pulp. It involves an extra step in pulping: cooking the pulp at about 100�C and pH 3 to 4 for about an hour, to remove hexene uronic acid by acid hydrolysis. This reduces the use of bleaching chemicals by up to 40%, and makes chelation unnecessary. (The effect on the cellulose is not reported.)
This development is reported in two Finnish-language articles abstracted in Paperbase Abstracts:
"New Bleaching Stage Revealed," by M. Korpivaara. Pap. Puu v. 78 no. 4, Apr. 1996, p. 151-152. (Abstr. 6776, 1996)
"Hydrolysis Halves Bleaching Chemical Consumption," by K. Ojanpera. Tek. Talous no. 22, 30 May 1996, p. 8. (Abstr. 6789, 1996) (3B3.83)
"Effect of Adsorbed Transition Metals on Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching of Thermomechanical Pulp," by S.K. Rodriguez, K.L. Wilson, and R.C. Francis. 82e Congrès annuel [de la] Section technique [de l']Association canadienne des pâtes et papiers: Façonner aujourd'hui l'environnement de demain: Textes à être présentées les jeudi et vendredi, 1-2 février 1996, les Palais des Congrès de Montrèal: Prètirès B (CPPA): B237-246. (In English) (ABIPST # 919, 1997)
The roles of 7 transition metals during hydrogen peroxide bleaching of thermomechanical pulp were examined. These were manganese, iron (Fe++ and Fe+++), copper, cobalt, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. Cu++ and Fe+++ did not desorb from the pulp and did not affect H2O2 decomposition or consumption in oxidation significantly, but the rest did. Results suggest that the maximum Mn concentration for an H2O2 brightening stage should be 4 ppm on pulp. (3B3.83)
Story of Bleaching, by E. Völker. Gebr. Bellmer GmbH. (Niefern): 160 p. (April 1992) (In English) (ABIPST #4441(B), 1996)
Covers the history of bleaching from 1700 to 1992, including the origin and development of bleaching & papermaking, and their relationship to social and political history of the time; also bleaching and dyeing, natural fibers for paper pulp, and mechanical pulp and recycled wastepaper. (3B3.83)
"Preparation in Pulp Mill and Use of Peroxy Acids in Bleaching of Chemical Pulps," by R. Paquet, J.R. Anderson and W. Wilkinson. Conference Technologique Estivale 1995, Quebec, 31 May-2 June 1995, pp. 29-37 (CPPA, 1995, 123 pp., $30 (ISBN 1-895288-83-5)] (In French) (Paperbase Abstracts # 1994, 1997)
The use of peroxy acids for bleaching of chemical pulps improves the paper's brilliance levels without damaging its strength and viscosity properties. Tests on sulphite and kraft pulp bleaching, when a TCF or ECF stage was replaced by a mixed peroxy acid state, showed brightness levels increased by 4.8 ISO points. It has many advantages, including compatibility with ozone gas and a number of other bleaching systems. (3B3.83)
"Nya blekmedel på frammarsch: Många nya alternativ tests nu full skala, pilotskala eller på laboratorium," by B. Jacobson, STFI. (New Bleaching Methods Making Headway: Many New Alternatives are in Full-, Pilot-, or Laboratory-scale testing). Svensk Papperstidn. 99, no. 3: 44-46, 48 (March 22, 1996). (In Swedish) (ABIPST #4384, 1996)
This is a review of some recently-introduced chlorine-free bleaching methods: peracetic acid, peroxysulfuric acid, and UV with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide; also biobleaching with bacteria, fungi, hemicellulase, manganese peroxide, lignin peroxidase, and metal complexes. Chemical formulas for some of the processes are provided. (3B3.83)
"Bleaching with New Reductive Chemicals: Replacement of Hydrosulphite," by C. Pedneault, S. Robert and C. Pellerin. Pulp & Paper Canada, vol. 93 #3, 1997, p. 51-55.
The journal editor has inserted below the title the statement "Use of boranamines can boost brightness levels to 76% ISO."
Sodium hydrosulphite, sodium borohydride or hydrogen peroxide are commonly used for bleaching mechanical pulp. Amine boranes were investigated as a possible replacement for hydrosulphite. They are thermally and hydrolytically stable, water soluble, easily handled and totally nonreactive towards oxygen; they are also available on an industrial scale. They are most effective at an acidic pH. (3B3.83)
"Kenaf Mill Progresses." PPI This Week vol. 11, no. 30, 12-16 Aug. 1996, p. 4. (Paperbase Abstracts #8134, 1996)
A Canadian investment company, Kafus Capital, has bought an 82.5% share in Kenaf Paper Manufacturing of Nevada, which is planning a $100 million newsprint project, to include construction of a 60,000 to 75,000 tons per year kenaf-based newsprint mill near Raymondsville, Texas. (3B3.84)
"Optimizing Flocculation and Drainage for Microparticle Systems by Controlling Zeta Potential," by Takanori Miyanishi and Motegi Shigeru. TAPPI Journal vol. 80#1, Jan. 1997, p. 262-270.
The title is somewhat misleading. This is about making carbonate-filled groundwood. The problem of filler retention has been pretty well solved for carbonate-filled chemical pulps, but all angles had to be checked or worked out from scratch for mechanical pulps. (3B3.85)
ISO 14000 Questions and Answers, edited by Caroline G. Hemenway and Mary McKiel. ISO 14000 is a new international standard for environmental management systems. Published by CEEM with ASQC, 1996. 56 pages, soft cover. Item number: 08CEISOQA. $20 to members and nonmembers; call 1-800/332-8686 in the USA; 1-800/446-9431 in Canada. The ISO 14000 Handbook is available from the same source for $75.
There are actually a number of related standards in the 14000 series. ISO 14040 deals with life-cycle assessment, but it is not finished yet. (3B3.9)
"Where are All the Environmentalists?" by Ed Shoener. Quality Systems Update, June 1996, p. 19.
ISO's Technical Committee 207 has been working for three years on a set of standards for environmental management-its 14000 series-but there has been little involvement from environmental groups and nongovernmental organizations. These groups could be organizing discussions, holding meetings around the US., and involving interested parties, so that the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to Technical Committee 207 could be getting some feedback from the field. The author would probably like to hear from supporters of this type of action. His address is National Institute for Environmental Renewal, 1300 Old Plank Rd., Mayfield, PA 18433 (717/282-0302, fax 282-3381, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org). (3B3.93)
"Precipitation Products - Fillers for the Paper Industry - An Ecological Drawback," by K. Kautz. Int. Papwirtsch. no. 2, 1996, pp. 31-33, 51, 36. (In German and English) (Paperbase Abstracts #1536, 1997)
In accordance with a 1995 environmental directive of the European Community, the life cycles of ground and precipitated calcium carbonate were analyzed in different countries of the EC to compare energy expenditure, CO2 emissions, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides and amount of waste water produced. PCC consumes more energy in its production so it is not recommended. (3B3.94)
"Unwisdom of the Solomons," by N. Baird. New Scientist 149, no. 2014: 30-33 (Jan. 27, 1996) (ABIPST #1247, 1996)
The government of the Solomon Islands was planning in early 1996 to bottle and sell oxygen in an effort to divert attention away from inept logging policies. Current logging licenses permit 4 million cubic meters to be cut annually. At this rate, experts predict that the Islands will be logged out in three years. The UK Overseas Development Administration gave the Islands money for reforestation and forest management; instead they used it for industrial forestry and plantations of nonindigenous trees. As a result, UK has withdrawn further financial aid. Australia too is unhappy about these practices and has withdrawn its financial aid. (3B3.95)
"Supercritical Water Oxidation of Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge (as an Alternative to Incineration)," by C.A. Blaney et al. 1996 Minimum Effluent Mills Symposium, Atlanta, GA, 22-24 Jan. 1996, pp. 79-93 [TAPPI Press, 1996, 384 pp., $66.50 (ISBN 0-89852-656-6)]
Kimberly-Clark Corp. and the University of Texas have been developing a new technology, Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). As an alternative to incineration, it produces no unwanted emissions or discharges from the treatment of wastes such as pulp and paper mill sludges. Instead, usable byproducts including clean water, carbon dioxide gas and dioxin-free ash are created; most organics are destroyed. The method looks commercially viable. (3B3.96)
"New Ecologically Friendly Technology for Aerodynamic Formation of Paper Without Water at Speeds Approaching 2000 m/min," by O. Terentyev. First EcoPaperTech, an International Conference on Papermaking and Paper-Machine Technology (Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute and Finnish Paper Engineers' Association): 421-424 (1995; Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). (ABIPST #9415, Jan. 1997)
[The method of papermaking described here is not totally waterless, because it depends on strict control of temperature and humidity for optimal fiber moisture content. Papermakers using traditional methods already knew that they got additional fiber bonding when they dried, pressed and calendered the paper, so they knew that the paper did not have to be saturated during forming. -Ed.]
This method was developed at St. Petersburg State Technological University of Plant Polymers, where two experimental installations for aeroformation were developed. Size and filler are processed along with the fiber. Paper with a 15-20% decrease in basis weight can be produced, which gives a 10-15% reduction in amount of fiber needed. Effluents and emissions are reduced; so are energy costs; and smaller equipment is needed. (3B3.97)
"Carl David Ekman-Pioneer. Part I," by B. Steenberg. Nord. Pappershistorisk Tidskr. v.23 #4, 1995, pp. 9-16. (In Swedish. Paperbase Abstracts, #4839, 1996)
Ekman was a chemist (1845-1904) who was the first to produce sulphite pulp industrially, in 1874, at the Bergvik pulp mill. The first steps in lab work and research into pulp production by Ekman, and his patent battles with the German Mitscherlich brothers, are described. (3B4)
Nützlich Mittheilungen für Papier-Frabrikanten, enthaltend eine volständige Anweisung zur Bleichung des rohen Stoffes, so wie der Bereitung der Chlorine USW and des Geheimnisses Papier in der Masse zu leimen. Mit e. Lithogr., 15 fig. enth/von e. in Dt. sich aufhaltenden Engländer-Nachdr. [d.Ausg.] Heilbronn 1839. Basel: Basler Papiermühle, 1992.  Bl., 20 S., 1 Faltbl.; 21 cm. Announced in IPH, v.6 #1, 1996, p. 24. This publication is in the Deutschen Buch- und Schriftmuseum der Deutschen Bücherei Leipzig.
This is a recent reprint of a little 20-page book originally printed in 1839, explaining how to bleach paper with chlorine and size with alum and rosin. (3B4)
"Papyrus-Some Ancient Problems in Bonding," by K. W. Allen. Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 16, no. 1: 47-51 (1996). (ABIPST #2994, 1996)
The author, who is at Oxford Brookes University in the UK, investigated adhesion in rolls of papyrus, in which the component sheets were fastened together in long rolls. [The abstract refers in passing to "adhesion of sheets and rolls" so he may also have been investigating how the slices of the papyrus stem were held together to make the sheet.] He considered possible adhesive agents (muddy Nile water, as Pliny suggested; reed constituents; flour and water paste) and examined reed surfaces under optical and scanning electron microscopes. He concludes that the adhesive is the sap of the papyrus reed, which contains gum-forming polysaccharides. (3B4)
Restaurierung von Papyrus und anderen Schriftträgern aus Ägypten, by Michael Fackelmann. Terra Publishing Co., Zutphen, Holland 1985. 120 pp. This book (which may have been a dissertation) has sections on the fabrication of papyrus, and how it was used and stored, in addition to its deterioration and restoration. There are several chapters on other ancient writing surfaces: parchment, Arabian fiber-based paper, ostraka, and wax tablets. (3B4)
"Robert C. Williams American Museum of Papermaking," by Giselle B. Ow Yang. TAPPI Journal vol. 80 #4, April 1997, p. 55-56.
The museum, formerly known as the Dard Hunter Paper Museum, was housed for a few years at TAPPI, but is now at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology in Atlanta. This paper briefly describes the artifacts on display or in storage there. Virtual tours of the museum are available at http:// www.ipst.edu/amp/. (4C2)
The Abstract Bulletin of the IPST has 12 big monthly issues and an annual index. It costs $1200 per volume (12 months). There is a 25% discount for academic subscribers.
The ABIPST is just one of 13 information services available from the Institute, not counting its translation service and document delivery. To subscribe to any of them, contact IPST at 500 10th St., NW, Atlanta, GA 30318 (404/894-5727; fax 894-4778. E-mail: email@example.com). (5B5)
[Patent #] 5,393,562 utilizes very low concentrations of gaseous ammonia, continuously maintained in the storage area of library or archive, to establish and maintain near neutral values of paper pH. An older gaseous ammonia technique (the Kathpalia process) treats individual batches of acidic paper with high (ca. 10,000-100,000 ppm) concentrations of gaseous ammonia that takes the paper to alkaline pHs of 9-11 but which must be repeated at intervals because the paper gradually loses ammonia to the storage atmosphere and returns to its initial acidic condition. The storage area, especially in the early period following treatment, smells strongly of ammonia.
As shown long ago by W.J. Barrow, any pH greater than 7.0 does little, if anything, to reduce the rate of acid hydrolysis of paper cellulose; keeping paper pH between 6.0 and 7.0 provides 95% of the protection afforded by pHs of 7.0 or greater. The Sebera process is applicable to storage areas (especially closed or limited access) in which the storage atmosphere is continuously maintained at 1-10 ppm ammonia. Under these conditions even the most acidic papers will have their pHs raised to the 6.0-7.0 level (non-acidic papers can go to a pH of 8.5 or so) and so 95% of the benefit of deacidification to alkaline pH values is attained. At these 1-10 ppm concentrations the ammonia is below or just at the level detectable by odor and is completely safe within OSHA and other guidelines. If the storage volume is reasonably tight, only small amounts of ammonia need to be continuously introduced to maintain the 1-10 ppm levels so the process is economic. Books removed from the storage environment will, as in the Kathpalia process, lose ammonia but when returned to storage will regain their near-neutral pH.
Information about current plans to implement this process should be addressed to Dr. Chandru Shahani at the Preservation Directorate of the Library of Congress.