[Note:The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing by subject in the yearly index. Some of the citations below are from Paper and Board Abstracts (PBA), a publication of Pira International, in Leatherhead, Surrey, UK. Pira can supply the full text of most of the documents cited. Place orders by fax to 011 44 1372 360104. The charge is $10.40 for non-Pira members.]
"A Study of the Deterioration of Book Papers in Libraries," by Arthur E. Kimberly and Adelaide L. Emley. Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publication No. 140. USGPO, Washington, 1933. 7 pp.
This is one of a series of investigations concerning the preservation of written and printed records made at the Bureau of Standards (now NIST), supported in part by the Carnegie Corporation. A total of 229 books, not counting duplicates, was gathered from 23 libraries at widely scattered locations for analysis. Paper from books stored in urban institutions was uniformly more deteriorated than that from identical volumes kept in country libraries. This was attributed to the air pollutant sulphur dioxide. (The roles of ozone and nitrogen dioxide as oxidants had not been defined yet.)
The role of fiber quality in paper condition (permanence) was also investigated, though pH was not mentioned. From the abstract: "Papers containing chemically refined rag and wood fibers were found invariably to be in better condition than papers containing appreciable quantities of ground wood fibers. This serves to emphasize the importance of the chemical purity of the fibers themselves as a factor in paper permanence. Data are given on the kinds of fibers found in the book papers as related to the dates of the publications. Since the dates cover the transition from use of rag fibers alone to use of straw and wood fibers also, these data are of historical interest in the use of fibers for book papers. They also define a period, 1875-1910, during which crude fibers were frequently used in book papers, and thus serve as a warning that the papers in books published in this period may be quite impermanent."
Three tables present a great deal of data on each paper in each city: Whether the atmosphere was polluted, date of publication, fiber composition (rag, chemical wood, groundwood, and esparto), folding endurance, acidity, copper number and alpha cellulose content; percent of volumes in good, intermediate and bad condition, by fiber composition and age; and increase in acidity of rag and sulphite papers after four years natural aging and after accelerated aging in 2 to 9 ppm SO2 at 65% RH and 30°C. This was a very early use of aging with gaseous pollutants. (1A1)
Observation on Papers as Evidence, by Allan Stevenson. Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Libraries, 1961. 28 pp. (Univ. of Kansas Publications. Library series, No. 11)
This reference is one of a large number on paper history from the Deutschen Buch- und Schrift-Museum in the Deutsche Bücherei, Leipzig, published in IPH 5 no. 2, 1995. (1E)
"Off-Line Watermarking--With Innovative Print Technology." Anon. Pap. Technol. v. 36, no.5, June 1995, p. 11.
TSI, London, has introduced its offline Watermark System which watermarks paper after production. It offers low origination costs, short lead times, no minimum order and client proofing. British Airways, The Economist, and Reebok are among its customers. (1E4)
"Bericht über das Colloquium Online-Datenbank zur Wasserzeichenerschliessung Bad Homburg, 12.-14. 6. 1995" (Report of the Colloquium on an Online Watermark Database, Bad Homburg, June 12-14, 1995), by Kerstin Dürschner. IPH v.5 #2, 1995, p. 24-27, 30-32.
At the Werner-Reimer Foundation, an interdisciplinary colloquium took place for the purpose of discussing the conditions for the creation of an online watermark data bank. It was decided to study, in addition to an online solution, the possibility of issuing data in CD-ROM form and in a short-term, internationally based pilot project, first to gain experience with software, survey and search rasters, display processing, etc. Following this--provided adequate financing is assured--a definitive project can be formulated. [From the Summary] (1E)
"Permanent Papers for Printing and Writing," by J. Dabrowski and H. Gonera. Przegl. Papier, no. 7, 1995, pp. 344-348 (in Polish). (PBA Abstr. 6587, 1995)
Describes ancient and contemporary permanent papers, and current standards. (This is a reflection of the movement for permanent paper in Poland.) (3A9.4)
"Multivariate Characterization of Chemical and Physical Descriptors in Pulp Using NIRR," by Ralf J.O. Olsson et al. Tappi J. Oct. 1995, p. 158-166.
Near-infrared reflectance (NIRR) is a rapid spectrometric technique that can characterize pulp for content of lignin, sugar and yield (i.e., what percentage of the wood has been turned into pulp) in 30 seconds. This paper describes how NIRR spectra and traditional descriptors underwent multivariate data analysis to give a calibration model. (3A9.7)
Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science (Amsterdam). Research Abstracts 1994. (Investigations by the Central Research Laboratory) Bilingual, English and Dutch. 62 pp. Index. Available without charge from the Library at the Central Research Laboratory, Gabriël Metsustraat 8, 1071 EA Amsterdam (tel. 31 20-673 51 62, fax 31 20-675 16 61).
Sixty-two abstracts cover work done in 1994. Presumably some of the papers will later be printed in full in a volume of Contributions of the Central Research Laboratory to the Field of Conservation and Restoration. Two of the abstracts are summarized below.
"CRL Standard Specifications for Storage Materials in Archives, Libraries and Museums." A set of draft standard specifications was drawn up, in cooperation with working groups in the field of archives. This was done in response to demand from curators, archivists, librarians, restorers and conservation staff, as well as to the government's request that storage materials (file folders, boxes, and so on) meet quality standards for large orders. Existing standards (ISO, international; NEN, Dutch; ANFOR, French; DIN, German) and test methods are referred to in the draft. For types of products not standardized so far, a research program was set up. Eight standard specifications appeared in 1994, and two more are in preparation. [They are in Dutch, of course, but there is a two-page English overview with them.]
"The Influence of 'Buffered' Boxes and File Folders on Accelerated Aging of Paper by Air Pollution." Acid-free, buffered and groundwood papers were placed in buffered and unbuffered boxes, which were then exposed to pollutant gases: 20 ppm NO2 and 10 ppm SO2. The boxes were not airtight. After three months, the groundwood paper had yellowed and embrittled, and absorbed more sulphur than the other papers. Whether the box containing the papers was buffered or not made little difference to the papers inside, but the unbuffered boxes were in worse condition. The buffered boxes had more than 50% of their alkaline reserve left. (3B1)
"Polymers that Prevent Yellowing of Paper," by J. Janson et al. 8th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Helsinki, Finland, 6-9 June, 1995. Pp. 451-458 in proceedings. (PBA Abstract 5680, 1995)
Coating a paper with "a suitable polymer" reduces or eliminates darkening of mechanical pulp and papers. Examples are given of polymers, mainly polyethers, and their effects on color reversion. (3B1.24)
"Analysis of Lignin in Various Kinds of Paper by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography," by S. Suzuki et al. Paper given at 62nd Pulp and Paper Research Conference, Tokyo, 1-2 June 1995. Pp. 86-91 in proceedings. (In Japanese) (PBA Abstr. 5893, 1995)
Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) was used to analyze lignin in 17 kinds of paper, including printing and writing paper. Several lignin pyrolysis products were detected in all the samples. Py-GC provided more detailed information on degradation products than other methods. Unlike the Klason lignin method, it should be unaffected by filler in paper. (3B1.7)
"Effect of Carbohydrate Degradation on Zero-Span Tensile Strength," by Niraj Agarwal and Rick Gustafson. Tappi Journal 78 #1, Jan. 1995. The effect of alkaline (kraft) pulping on fiber strength was studied. The relationship is not simple: it is necessary to consider the effect of pulping conditions on each type of carbohydrate degradation, among which are the following:
The type of degradation produced probably affects the relationship between pulp viscosity, yield loss, and strength. Primary peeling increases the number average DP, and probably increases fiber strength, but this is not reflected in viscosity. Viscosity measurement is not a reliable measure of strength. (Reprinted from the Abbey Newsletter, 19/6-7, p. 112a) (3B1.7)
"The Effect of Superheated Steam Drying on the Properties of Paper from Chemical Pulp," by N.A. Poirier et al. Journal of Pulp & Paper Science, Nov. 1995, p. J374-J378.
Better and faster drying methods are being adopted so that the dry end of the paper machine can keep up with the wet end. This means, among other things, higher drying temperatures and a certain amount of cellulose degradation, which may or may not be significant. This paper looks at the effect of drying paper by direct contact with superheated steam, and compares it to the effect of drying with hot air. Mechanical pulp sheets dried in superheated steam at temperatures up to 320°C actually grow a good deal stronger. Bleached kraft sheets, on the other hand, weaken, losing up to 13% of their strength. This strength loss is attributed to a thermally induced drying stress relaxation.
Some interesting work on drying stress is reviewed in this paper: decreased drying stress in bleached kraft sheets leads to decreased strength properties and increased bulk; when drying time is held constant, a tenfold increase in drying time resulted in a final drying stress decrease of 20%. (3B1.8)
"PAC Applications Flourish as Mills Search for Better Wet-End Runability," by Timothy Downs and Michael J. Ducey. Pulp & Paper, Nov. 1995, p. 83, 85.
Polyaluminum chloride is becoming increasingly useful in sizing systems, especially in alkaline and neutral papermaking, as a replacement for alum. It costs more but works more efficiently in many applications: retention, drainage, sizing, and deposit control. (3B3.45)
"How Does the Use of Recycled Fiber Affect Sizing Chemistry--Both Internal Sizing and Surface or On-machine Sizing?" Query in the column, "Ask Your Question," in Progress in Paper Recycling for February 1996, p. 99-102. Answered by Steven R. Boone.
Recycled fibers affect sizing by adding to surface area (fines, fillers), increasing unpredictability and adding inhibitors or contaminants such as surfactants, waxes or adhesives. Some kinds of recovered paper (e.g., kraft) are easier to size than others. Recommendations are made for proper selection of size and other wet-end chemicals that work well with recycled stock and maximize the effectiveness and retention of the sizing agent. (3B3.61)
"Wood Fiber: Will There be Enough?" by James A. McNutt. PIMA Magazine, Jan. 1996, p. 28-32.
The big reason for the world shortage of wood, according to a graph of production for fuelwood, sawlogs and pulpwood since 1960, is the use of wood for fuel, which has doubled in that time, while wood use for papermaking and construction purposes has increased only about 60%. The world's population could double in the next 35 years, and pulpwood demand is predicted to increase 2.5% annually for the next ten years, especially in Asia and China. In 1988, chemical wood fiber made up 45% of the raw material for paper and paperboard, and waste paper 29%. By the year 2001 (five years from now), chemical wood fiber is expected to make up only 39%, and waste paper 36%. (3B3.72)
"Feasibility Study on Kenaf Based Pulp Manufacturing in China," by H. Gotoh. Japan Tappi Journal, v. 49, #7, July 1995 (in Japanese). (PBA abstract 6378, 1995)
A kenaf pulp mill is planned for Hunan Province, China, by a team from the Global Environmental Forum and the Japan Kenaf Association. Kenaf for paper pulp production and the pulping process for kenaf are discussed, and the pulp and paper industry in China is reviewed. (3B3.84)
"AOX Content of Paper Manufactured with 'Chlorine free' Pulps," by R.T. Clapp et al., 1995 TAPPI Papermakers Conference, pp. 305-309. (PBA Abstract 5159)
Data on the adsorbable organic halide (AOX) content of some materials commonly used in the manufacture of pulp and paper products are presented.
|Pulps and Papers||Avg AOX (ppm)|
|Pulps labelled TCF||6.0-16.4|
|Pulps unlabelled or labelled ECF||124.6-391.6|
|Deinked pulp bleached without any Cl||287-418|
|Deinked pulp bleached with NaOCl||272-303|
|European papers marketed as Cl-free||2.0-362.8|
|European papers not marketed as Cl-free||757.5-1265.8|
|U.S. papers marketed as Cl-free||47.4-398.6|
|U.S. papers not marketed as Cl-free||534.8-570.9|
|Papermaking Materials||Avg AOX (ppm)|
|Cationic wet end starch||25.4|
|Ethylated size press starch||32.1|
"How Paper Mill Wastes may Imperil Fish," by J. Raloff. Science News, Nov. 4, 1995, p. 295.
This title is a bit misleading, because the article is about a short-lived natural estrogen-like hormone secreted by trees, not generated by paper mills. Still, it is discharged bymills that use wood as a fiber source. The hormone, called beta-sitosterol, may be a natural insecticide. It interferes with natural reproduction in fish by depressing concentrations of estrogen and testosterone in both male and female fish, although it does not cause the fish to make detoxifying liver enzymes, as dioxins do.
Certain chlorinated organic compounds, especially dioxins, not only trigger these detoxifying enzymes but also act as hormones. But one of the scientists asked for comment on the finding said, "the importance of the [Guelph study] is that it's showing that we should be concerned about other components of effluent, not just dioxins." (3B3.91)
"Industry/Government Partnership Works to Solve New York Environmental Issues," by Randy Coburn and Garrett Dolan. Pulp & Paper, Oct. 1995, p. 59-63.
Above the title is the editor's summary: "New York State helps research and fund beneficial use technologies for pulp and paper mill sludges." Fifteen beneficial uses for sludge have been approved for testing and evaluation by the Department of Environmental Conservation. These include soil substitutes, nonfood fiber exchange efforts, absorbent products, construction uses and fuel products. (3B3.96)
"Recycling Better than Incineration, UK Study Says." Recycled Paper News, Nov./Dec. 1995, p. 10.
Jaakko Poyry Consulting and Economics for the Environment Consultancy/Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment looked into the relative advantages of recycling and incineration of newspapers, for the British Newsprint Manufacturers Association. The economic and environmental aspects of each were compared in their analysis, The Future for Used Newspapers: An Independent Evaluation. For every 1,000 tons of newspapers diverted from the landfill in the UK, recycling creates 12 new jobs while incineration creates only four. Each ton of recycled newspapers adds about $260 to the national income, but incineration costs the UK about $38 a ton, because revenue from created energy fails to cover the costs of running the plant. (3B3.96)
"Wie Strohpapier hergestellt wurde: Von der Auffindung eines frühen Privilegs in Wien und vom Bleichen des Materials in Quellenschriften [How Straw Paper was Made: The discovery of an early privilege in Vienna and the bleaching of materials according to source documents]", by Johann Axnix and Otto Wächter. Restauro, Sept.-Oct. 1995, p. 318-321.
A privilege (precursor of the patent) dated 1815 was discovered at the Technical University of Vienna, and the old bleaching methods were subsequently investigated. This describes how the pulp was prepared and bleached, using potassium carbonate, quicklime, calcium chloride, hypochlorites and other chemicals. (3B4)
Chronology of the Origin and Progress of Paper and Paper-making, by Joel Munsell. With a new introd. by Henry Morris. Reprint of the 5th ed., Albany, 1876. New York & London: Garland, 1980. 263 pp. This is a reference from the bibliography of books on paper history at the Deutsche Bücherei, Leipzig. (3B4)
Science and Civilization in China, by Joseph Needham. Cambridge University Press. Vol. 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Part 1: Paper and Printing, by Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin. 1987. xxv, 485 pp, numerous illustrations. Bibliography pp. 384-450. This is a reference from the bibliography of books on paper history at the Deutsche Bücherei, Leipzig. Tsien's contribution has been praised as a masterpiece on the history of paper in China. (3B4)