[Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing by subject in the yearly index. Some of the citations below are from Paper and Board Abstracts (PBA), a publication of Pira International, in Leatherhead, Surrey, UK. Pira can supply the full text of most of the documents originally cited in PBA. Place orders by fax to 011 44 1372 360104. The charge for each document is $10.40 for non-Pira members.]
The 1995-96 Competitive Grade Finder, along with its pocket edition and the deluxe edition, the Paper Buyers' Encyclopedia, provide comprehensive information about printing and writing papers on the market. All three versions indicate whether the paper listed is alkaline or not. They list papers alphabetically in the index, and classified by type (e.g., No. 2 offset recycled) in the main section, with brightness, opacity, finish, color and size availability, and caliper. Caliper and opacity are given for each weight made. Anyone who wants to switch from one grade to another of comparable quality will find one of these books helpful. Prices start at $30 for the Pocket Grade Finder; contact Grade Finders, Inc., in Pennsylvania: 610/524-7070, fax 524-8912. (1C)
The whole June 1995 issue of ASTM Standardization News is on quality: eight articles, including those on total quality management, quality perspectives at ASTM, the evolution of safety testing and quality assessment at Underwriters Lab, and the Registrar Accreditation Board. (1G7)
"The Electric Paperless Prototype," by Kevin Kelly. Wired 2.06. The editor's blurb under the title says, "Everybody's favorite digital fantasy of living a paperless life got a two-year tryout in the glass ark of Biosphere 2. Kevin Kelly visits and finds it's still a fantasy."
For two years, the eight people in the Biosphere experiment in Arizona tried to live an information-intensive life without paper, because one of the experiment's principles was that nothing was to be brought into or taken out of the sealed enclosure. They were in contact with the outside world by radio, e-mail, video and telephone, and they kept records of most things they did, usually electronically. But paper and pencil were used for field notebooks, and they had a book library which author Kelly says reminded him of the odd lots of books you find shelved in vacation cottages.
They did forgo paper in the bathroom. They did not print out the 10,000 faxes they received, but projected them onto the screen of a computer. And of course they were not able to put their signature on any paper forms; they had to have someone on the outside with power of attorney.
During the second year, they were allowed to receive medical journals and research documents for their own scientific papers and classes (some of them were working on degrees). They wanted the TV Guide too, but never got it, because it was too much work for the support center to fax each week. A few Biospherians asked to have books faxed or e-mailed in as ASCII, but these were not very convenient to read, and it took a long time to download them. They missed having newspapers and magazines.
Their most common complaint was that they couldn't find stuff after they had filed it, which is not surprising when you consider that each person generated about 4 gigabytes of information during the two years. The two developments they felt most need for were a way to make field notes that did not involve the hands so much, and better information management. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter>, p. 39]
The August Scientific American, by the way, tells us that the Texas oil heir backing this project ejected the former managers in April 1994 and put the structure in the hands of scientists. A consortium led by Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory is trying to decide what scientific purpose it could serve. Whatever they do, they will not put people back in it. So that experiment is over. (2E4)
"A Clean Machine with Minimal Fresh Water," by Linda R. Robertson. PIMA Magazine, April 1995, p. 42-43. White water recycling can increase both inorganic and organic loading. When this water is used to make up starch for use as a filler or thin coating, the microorganisms in it degrade the starch, causing it to lose strength.
The pH of the white water in closed systems becomes more acidic because of microbial metabolism, and this corrodes the machine system. Pitch, scale and slime deposits increase; more coagulants and flocculants are needed in the stock. Ironically, because one solution to this pollution of the white water is to retain it all in the paper where these changes cannot take place, another effect of closing the loop is a falloff in retention.
A study was carried out at the Nalco lab on white water from a number of mills to explore methods of control: biocides (some work, some don't); temperature of the water (hot water, over 145°F or so, sometimes decreases deposits, but may encourage the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which may be dangerous, corrosive and odorous); dilution of white water with treated wastewater, because growth of organisms is slower and easier to control in dilute white water (except that the filamentous microorganisms used in wastewater treatment may be present even after treatment, and cause massive deposits in the system). (2H2.10)
"Off-Odours in the Paper and Board Industry," by M. Lustenberger, G. Ziegleder and G. Betz. Wochenbl. Papierfabr., v. 122, #22, Nov. 1994, p. 899-902. (In German. Abstr. # 1643, PBA, v. 28 #4, 1995) Odors in paper mills become more of a problem when mills close up their white water circulation and use chlorine-free pulps. Analytical methods to identify and quantify the causal agents are reviewed, and mill-specific corrective measures are recommended. (2H2.9)
"Odor Control: Location, Process Determines Nuisance Level" (a "Technology Profile" by Kelly H. Ferguson, Deputy Editor). Pulp & Paper, April 1995, p. 147-148. Odor has become more of an issue, now that population has increased and many city dwellers have homes in the country or at the seashore near mills. Odor can have a chemical or microbiological origin. Any kind of mill can have odor problems, especially if they treat their own wastewater or handle sludge, but kraft mills have more. Some kraft pulp mills have begun using anthraquinone to lower their liquor sulfidity and reduce the impact on the community. As toxic compounds in effluent are controlled, odor will also diminish.
The best known sources of odors include hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyldisulfide. Even stock or sludge that accumulates over a period of time will give odor problems, which can be controlled by keeping things well agitated, keeping retention times low, and maintaining proper housekeeping. An "electronic nose" named the Aroma-Scan has been developed to analyze and identify odors at low levels. The author describes a number of other control measures, including capture and incineration, and compost filters (i.e., filtering the odorous gases through a layer of compost) in waste treatment. (2H2.9)
Investigations by the Central Research Laboratory, 1993: Research Abstracts. Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science, Gabriël Metsustraat 8, 1071 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands (tel. 020-673 51 62, fax 020-675 16 61).
Page 5-24 is in English, and p. 25-55 is in Dutch. The Director, Agnes Gräfin Ballestrem, tells us in her preface that this is a new publication, meant for colleagues and institutions not only in the Netherlands, but abroad: "It is hoped and expected that those interested in one or more projects get in touch with the CRL so as to come to an exchange of views and experiences." There are 40 informative summaries of research projects in addition to lists of short investigations and the subjects of advice given during consultations. Some of the most interesting research summaries are:
"Safekeeping: Australian Developments in Document Storage," by Virginia Cook. National Preservation Office Quarterly Suppl. [to National Library of Australia News], Feb. 1995, p. 9-11.
The author is a journalist, describing the efforts of Ina Koneczna of the Australian Archives to make archival paper and board available for storage of documents and records. Cook says that Koneczna, the Australian Archives' Senior Preservation Policy Adviser, was "the driving force behind the launch of Australian-made, low-cost, acid-free preservation materials." Ina "successfully convinced the Shoalhaven Paper Mill (Australian Paper) and Visy Board (Pratt Industries) they could produce competitively priced and archival quality, acid-free papers, boards and containers," and they are now all available from a domestic source. Savings to users will be significant, because comparable imported materials were often of inferior quality and almost five times more expensive. This accomplishment is described as a world first.
No one, apparently, told the author about the immense amount of lobbying, promoting and information-gathering that was done by the Archival Paper Action Committee, beginning in 1987. They wrote every congressman, worked successfully to establish standards, contacted all the papermakers, and got the conservators, librarians, archivists, and other groups, formally involved. They published a list of permanent papers available in the country, a short list because there weren't many of them. They prepared the ground and sowed the seeds.
The National Library of Australia also helped prepare the ground for the Archives' accomplishment. Beginning in 1990 or before, when the price of library binding went up sharply, it established a policy of designing and using polypropylene boxes for journals, loose documents, pamphlets, newspapers and other materials, instead of binding them. It even had a staff member whose job, at least part of it, was to design enclosures. Shrink-wrapping became one of the options for material needing enclosure. This was all well publicized, before and after the National Preservation Plan was set up from the Library. These boxes are said to be well accepted now throughout the library community.
The results of all these efforts, and of the efforts of Ina Koneczna at the Archives, came together last June, when the Minister for Communications and the Arts launched a set of Australian-made, low-cost, acid-free storage boxes and enclosures. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter, p. 41.] (3.6)
"Densitometers Today," by GATF staff. GATFWorld, March/ April 1995, p. 6-11. A clearly written, illustrated summary of densitometers and their uses, especially for printers. The densitometer was invented in 1933 to rate the density and contrast of images. One of the citations in the bibliography is : S.J. Popson, "A Comparison of Densitometers, Reflectometers, and Colorimeters." Tappi Journal , March 1989, p. 119ff. (3.77)
"Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Paper and Binding (AALL Preservation Committee)," by Katherine Hedin. AALL Newsletter (American Association of Law Libraries) Nov. 1994, p. 6-9. The Working Group surveyed law book publishers and reprinters to see how closely they were following accepted paper and binding standards, and to encourage the use of accepted standards. Most were found to be using permanent or alkaline paper, but not to be using the compliance statement and symbol. Most law libraries were dissatisfied with the quality of binding methods and materials. The Working Group made a number of recommendations, which are presented here. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter, p. 42] (3A9.1)
"Meeting Focuses on Paper Research," by Charlie Costain. CCI Newsletter #15, March 1995, p. 13-14. The Canadian Conservation Institute, from time to time, asks its clients for feedback, to make sure its research program continues to meet their needs. In May 1994, the CCI invited them to a meeting near the site of the IIC-CG conference to discuss research priorities. Some of the topics named were among the 34 active research projects already under way: the effect of lignin on the permanence of groundwood paper; evaluation of three commercial mass deacidification processes; and the effects of alkali on the long-term stability of cellulose. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter, p. 42] (3B1)
"A Comparison of Light and Heat Induced Yellowing of Different Pulps," by K. Grossmann and G. Ott. Papier v. 48 #10, Oct. 1994, p. 623-627 (in German). [Abstr. 1594, PBA , v. 28 #4, 1995] The effects of heat and light on yellowing of spruce groundwood and bleached spruce sulphite pulps were compared. UV affected lignin almost exclusively, while heat affected mainly the cellulose. Two distinct process mechanisms are involved, and different chromophores are formed. (3B1.2)
"The Effect of Oxidation on the Subsequent Oven Aging of Filter Paper," by P.M. Whitmore and J. Bogaard. Restaurator 16:1, 1995, p. 10-30. The work reported here explored the effect of oxidation that usually occurs during aging, e.g. from atmospheric and photochemical reactions. Previously oxidized sheets of paper aged more rapidly in the oven than comparable unoxidized sheets. Links in the cellulose chain seem to be made weaker, and acidity may be created as a result of oxidation. The degree of oxidation of the cellulose in a paper may be an important determinant of the overall degradation rate. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter, p. 42] (3B1.21)
"Tideline Formation in Paper Objects: Cellulose Degradation at the Wet-Dry Boundary," by Elmer Eusman. (Studies in the History of Art, 51. Monograph Series II) In Conservation Research 1995, p. 11-27. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Distributed by the University Press of New England, 23 South Main St., Hanover, NH 03755. ISSN 0091-7338; ISBN 0-89468-208-3. $30.
This is a careful, important piece of work on a fascinating subject. The brown line that forms at the edge of a wet area in paper as it dries is not, as many think, merely a result of migration of water-soluble compounds, because it forms repeatedly in paper of pure cellulose after it is dipped into pure water. The brown line generally does not form in modern papers, but the boundary does fluoresce under UV light, as W.H. Bone showed in 1934. The paper in the tideline region degrades, as can be demonstrated by dipping the paper in a methylene blue solution, which is an indicator for carboxyl groups. Although the brown line and the fluorescence can be washed out right after drying, the place where they used to be still absorbs methylene blue. The brown line is not a result of fungal infection, but if the sample is innoculated, the fungus grows rapidly along the line. The peroxide content in the tideline region was found to be 10-12 times as high as in the wet or dry region--a result of both transportation and concentration, plus the peroxides' catalytic effect in an autoxidation process. Their role in tideline formation could not be discovered. Russell-effect images, formed on a specially sensitized photographic plate held in close contact with the paper, were shown to have a high concentration of peroxides.
The color photographs illustrate all these effects and more. Other factors whose effects were explored included nonaqueous solvents, aging in sunlight and aging in dry and humid ovens. Following the conclusion section, there is a generous passage on practical implications for the paper conservator. (3B1.25)
"Manganese and Magnesium During Oxygen Bleaching of Wood Pulp," by O. Samuelson and U. Ojteg. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., v.9 #4, Dec. 1994, p. 259-266. (Abstract 1501, PBA , v. 28, #4, 1995) This was a study of colloidal and dissolved metals in spent bleach plant liquor: magnesium, calcium from pulp, manganese and hydroxy acid magnesium and calcium complexes. Magnesium compounds, used in pulp mills to protect carbohydrates against oxidation, can have the opposite effect in the presence of manganese, promoting oxidation. (3B1.5)
"Manage Your Metals with a Multipurpose Chelant," by A-R. Beaudry. Paper presented at 1994 Pulping Conference held at Sandiego, CA, 6-10 Nov. 1994. Book 3, p. 1245-1271. TAPPI Press, 3 vols. $155. (Abstract #2420, PBA , v. 28 #6, 1995) Buckman Labs has developed a multipurpose chelating agent for bleaching and pulping. It is said to enhance the bleaching process, improve pulp viscosity, increase brightness, and reduce color reversion. (3B1.5)
"Eigenschaftsänderung von Druckpapieren bei der beschleunigten Feucht-Warm-Alterung in Abhängigkeit ihrer Strichzusammensetzungen" (Aging Resistance of Coated Papers), by H.-H. Hofer, J. Weigl, P.-C. Le and A. Proksch. Wochenblatt fr Papierfabrikation 5, 1995, p. 190-197; and 6, 1995, p. 226-233.
This study involved woodfree (freesheet) and mechanical base papers, coated on a pilot machine with a variety of pigments, compared with coated papers obtained commercially. They were aged at 80°C and 65% RH. The composition of the coating (pigment, binder, and all other additives) had only a negligible effect on life expectancy of the papers. Generally speaking, the coating increased the papers' life expectancy, especially for mechanical base papers produced in an acid, pseudo-neutral or neutral process. It gave acidic mechanical papers additional protection of optical properties.
Similar effects of coating have been observed for most neutral mechanical and woodfree papers. In some cases, however, the optical properties of coated papers have been found inferior. This has been attributed to the effects of optical brighteners and binder yellowing.
Some of the papers were light-aged under a Xenon lamp; results were close to those obtained with heat-aging. Some physical measurements were made after aging. These suggested that moist heat aging is accompanied by crosslinking and condensation reactions. (3B1.8)
"Ageing Resistance of Coated and Uncoated Printing Papers," by G. Pepelnjak, M. Cerni-Letnar and G. Novak. Papier, v. 49 #2, Feb. 1995, p. 64, 67-69 (In German. Abstract 2052, PBA, v. 28 #5, 1995)
Optical, physical and chemical properties of papers made from different fibers and with different surface treatments are measured before and after a 24-hour accelerated aging cycle. Uncoated papers based on high-yield fibers such as CTMP or on recycled fibers showed severe loss of optical properties, with physical properties remaining largely unaffected. Aging resistance of coated papers varied, depending on the nature of both pigments and binders. (3B1.8)
"Elektrochemische Entsäurung bei Tintenfraß," by Karl Trobas. This five-page offprint from an unidentified book appeared in the Abbey office May 9, 1995. It must have been sent by the author, because a message was typed at the end . Since 1978, he says, he has been able to restore materials damaged by copper pigments. As many as 95.5% of the copper ions have been successfully removed from the paper. Research with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer has proved it, he says.
This article, however, is not about copper but iron-gall ink. Electrolytic treatment raised the pH of the area damaged by the iron-gall ink from 4.0 to 7.1 in 60 minutes, while blank parts of the page went from pH 6.4 to 8.0.
The author, who works in the Steiermärkischen Landesarchiv, has published previously on leafcasting and mass washing of paper. His method seems to resemble an electrolytic method of removing metals from process water, which was advertised recently in the paper literature. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter, p. 43] (3B2.4)
"The Calcium Propionate in the Deacidification and/or Stabilization of Paper," by M. Plossi Zappala. Cellul. Carta v. 45 #3, May-June 1994, p. 53-58 (in Italian). (Abstract 4729, PBA , 1994) This paper reports an exploratory study of the use of calcium propionate for simultaneous deacidification and antifungal treatment. The whiteness, pH, degree of polymerization and the infrared spectra were all measured before and after accelerated aging at 80°C and 76% RH. Results were favorable, especially with previously oxidized cellulose. [From the May 1995 Abbey Newsletter, p. 43] (3B2.4)
Properties of Paper: An Introduction. Second edition, revised. [by] William E. Scott and James C. Abbott, in collaboration with Stanley Trosset. Atlanta: TAPPI Press, 1995. 191 pp. $45 to members, $68 others, + S&H.
This edition has benefitted by the author's collaboration with James C. Abbott, chairman of the test methods subcommittee in ASTM Committee D-6 on Paper, and is well suited to the niche it occupies: an introduction to paper itself, for paper merchants, students, and people changing job focus within the paper industry. Scott's teaching skill and genius for sensing the learner's needs are apparent here. The tables and figures are much clearer now, and the chapter bibliographies give more complete citations, but the first edition's one-page index has disappeared. Permanence is covered fairly well on p. 119-122, though there are some rough edges yet: Table 6.6 lists temperature, moisture content and radiant energy as atmospheric properties, and it classifies acidic degradation, oxidation, moisture and oxygen as forms of radiant energy. This carelessness is not typical.
The sections are headed:
"Paper Beats Fraudsters." Labels Labelling, v. 17 #1, Jan.-Feb. 1995, p. 12. (Abstract 2057, PBA , v. 28 #5, 1995) A security paper called Fraser Void clearly produces the word void when copied on a color photocopier. It is available in a range of substances and surfaces, and may be converted into a self-adhesive or gummed label. Another version also incorporates an area which fades when photocopied and turns brown if bleach is applied. (3B3)
"Neutral to Alkaline Rosin Soap Sizing with Metal Ions and Polyethylenimine as Mordants," by Jinfeng Zhuang and Christopher J. Biermann. Tappi Journal, April 1995, p. 155-162. The aluminum ion from alum served until recent years as a mordant for rosin size, that is, as a chemical to fix the water-repellent rosin to the fiber. It works best in the range below and around pH 5. Other metal ions can be used with polyethylenimine (PEI) as mordants at different pH levels. This is a report of explorations with positive ions of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn, and polyethylenimine. The first two metals showed no effect; Fe3+/PEI was very effective in the acidic pH range; Zn2+/PEI induces moderate sizing under neutral to alkaline conditions in various pulps, and Fe2+ and Cu2+ with PEI induce very high levels of sizing.
This study was done to enhance understanding of the sizing mechanism, not to advocate a particular product or process. (3B3.4)
Alkaline Papermaking: A TAPPI Press Anthology of Published Papers 1993-1994, compiled by Dan W. Manson. TAPPI Press, 1997. 176 pp. Order #: 0101R247; price $48 members, $72 others. This book contains 24 articles gathered from 10 different publications that encompass the most current developments in the alkaline papermaking industry. The four sections are headed:
Mill and Operating Experience
Alkaline Chemistry and Sizing
Fillers and Chemical Additives for Alkaline Systems
Alkaline Paper Properties (3B3.4)
"Megafil 2000: Crystal Engineered PCC for Alkaline Papers" (promotional brochure from Specialty Minerals). This brochure is distinguished by the timeline of papermaking history that runs across the top of several pages, predictably leading up to the introduction of the product Megafil. Some of the dates are: 1151, first paper mill in Europe; 1803, Donkin creates first practical paper machine; 1830, alum-rosin sizing first used in the US; 1901, Edwin Sutermeister makes first paper sample with calcium carbonate filler; 1925, calcium carbonate first used commercially as filler; 1936, first PCC production; 1942, PCC first sold to a fine paper producer; 1950s, S.D. Warren converts first commercial fine paper machine to alkaline; 1955, AKD sizing agent is commercially introduced; 1963, ASA is patented; 1973, first alkaline paper qualifies for Xerox; 1975-1990, various PCCs introduced; 1986, first North American PCC satellite plant starts up; and 1991, acid tolerant PCC is introduced. (3B3.44)
"PCC in Coating Formulas Expected to Rise Dramatically this Decade," by Ken L. Patrick. Pulp & Paper, May 1995, p. 141-145. Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) can be manufactured onsite at paper mills, for use as a filler. Specialty Minerals has 32 PCC plants operating in the U.S., and three of them can make PCC morphologies for coating applications as well. The crystal can be tailored for gloss, matte or dull coatings, and the plant can shift from one to the other, or to filler grades, as needed.
Right now, most of this PCC is going for coating of woodfree grades, but the company expects to be doing more business with lightweight coated (mechanical) grades. (3B3.44)
"Effect of Fiber Loading on Paper Properties," by John Klungness, Marguerite S. Sykes, Freya Tan, Said Abubakr and Jacob D. Eisenwasser. Paper presented at the 1995 TAPPI Papermakers Conference. Last year John Klungness and others gave a paper at the Recycling Symposium, describing how calcium carbonate could be used as a filler to prevent hornification and collapse of the fiber during drying. In effect, it is manufactured in the stock prep process, by reacting carbon dioxide and calcium hydroxide in high consistency pulps under mechanical shear. The carbonate forms inside the fiber lumen. Since it does not interfere with fiber bonding, the strength of the paper is not affected. But optical properties are not affected, and the effect on permanence was not investigated. This work was done on a handsheet scale at the Forest Products Laboratory. Fiber-loaded sheets from UMIST were also tested.
This year, Klungness reported further work on this project when several problems were revealed in larger scale trials: changes in color and brightness, dimensional stability, retention aid demand, and apparent density. The brightness loss and yellowing was traced to 1.3% residual lignin in TCF bleached pulps in the UMIST sheets; this was taken care of by adding hydrogen peroxide in the fiber-loading process. Sheet shrinkage can be avoided by either loading pre-refined pulp or simultaneously refining and loading and taking other measures. Retention was judged to be easily handled by the papermaker. Apparent density, reduced about 10% in fiber-loaded paper, could be offset by decreasing wet pressing. This decreases strength, which can be regained by adding wet-end starch. (3B3.44)
"Accurate Determination of Six Common Fillers in Fine Papers, Newsprint, and Recycled Stock by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry," by Vlad Kocman and Pierre Bruno. Tappi Journal, April 1995, p. 129-134. A sample of the paper is pulverized and compressed into a flat disc, which is analyzed by X-ray spectrometry. Special software calculates filler stoichiometry and reports percentage elemental concentrations, percentage filler level, and residual concentrations not accounted for by the fillers. Fillers analyzed for are calcium carbonate, kaolinite, titanium dioxide, talc, muscovite, and aluminosilicate. The method is suitable for quick and precise filler level determination in testing laboratories, production, or research, the authors say. (3B3.44)
"X-ray Diffraction for Quantifying Calcium Carbonate Fillers in Printing and Writing Papers," by H.M.S. Delgado and C.S.R. Gomes. Tappi Journal, April 1995, p. 135-139. The authors used X-ray diffraction to identify and quantify crystalline pigments, compared their results to those of conventional ashing, and developed linear regression equations describing the relationship between the two measures. (3B3.44)
ASTM D-5663 - 95, Standard Guide for Validating Recycled Content in Packaging Paper and Paperboard, has been approved and published. It does not cover fine paper, but it is the first guide or standard of its kind. To order, call ASTM's Customer Service Dept., 215/299-5585. (3B3.6)
"Reacting to Recycle," by Janice Bottiglieri, Managing Editor of PIMA Magazine. P. 34-40 in the April 1995 issue.
The editor's heading says, "As increasing quantities of recycle pulp designed for printing and writing grades hit the market, alkaline papermakers are looking at how it will affect papermaking and sizing operations. Also, will filler levels rise with pulp prices?" This article records the responses of several papermakers and suppliers to the editor's questions. Most agree, she says, that alkaline papermakers can please customers and meet production demands with recycle pulp, with careful attention to pulp quality and chemical strategies.
Stickies, dirt and deposits from recycle/groundwood grades are mentioned as problems by two interviewees. Another mentioned higher levels of microbiologicals, and a fourth mentioned more anionic trash. Jerry Gess recommended bleaching with an oxidizing agent after deinking of recycle pulp, to keep it from yellowing, then checking with IR analysis to see if all the potential color forming groups have been oxidized. He also cautioned users of recycle-content pulp to watch the proportion of mechanical pulp in it, because if it is too high, it must be labelled "mechanical pulp" and will bring a lower price. Lowell Lott said that the quality of secondary fiber for deinking may decline as prices of the pulp increase, now that demand is up.
The editor mentioned the growing amount of groundwood copier paper in municipal office waste, which threatens to contaminate the waste stream, lowering the brightness and strength of pulp made from it. Dale Raymond said the way to control that was to segregate fiber at the source, as well as through the sorting process. This is more effective than correcting the problem further along in the processing steps. Sizing and retention systems will be refined to assure control and stability in the wet end. Several people saw increased use of the size press in order to sidestep the problems brought by increased anionic trash. Also, as Dominic Rende said, "The residual deinking chemistries from pulper, flotation, and/or washing processes can be absorbed into fibers and interfere with sizing." Surface active agents, defoamers and biocides also interfere with sizing.
The effect of high pulp prices was taken up, and there was agreement that filler levels will rise in response. There is a shortage of high quality deinked fiber at any price, and filler can serve as a substitute. Most alkaline paper manufacturers are using filler levels of 15-20%. Either clay or calcium carbonate can improve brightness and opacity to compensate for recycled paper's lack of these characteristics. In Europe, mills make paper with as much as 35% filler, according to Gess, but in the U.S. he only knows of one mill using as much as 30% filler. The upper limit is set partly by the need for stiffness to prevent jamming in machines. (3B3.6)
"Accentuate the Positive and Neutralize the Negative," by L. Webb. Pulp and Paper International, v. 37 #1, Jan. 1995, p. 44-47. (Abstract 1526, PBA, v. 28 #4, 1995) Increasing use of recycled materials and reduction in water discharges has made wet-end chemistry even more complex. Carry-over of chemicals from pulping and deinking, or from surface treatment of the original paper, may neutralize the wet end's normal cationic additives or interfere with their retention. The author recommends minimizing intake of materials high in such anionic trash, and controlling its distribution between particulate and liquid phases to minimize its effect. (3B3.6)
"Is Deinking Environmentally Desirable?" by N. McCubbin and J. Folke. Paper presented at 1994 International Environmental Conference, Portland, 17-20 Apr. 1994, Book 1, p. 321-328 (TAPPI Press, 998 pp, 2 vols. $131). (Abstract 1733, PBA v. 28, #4, 1995)
The European Environmental Research Group and N. McCubbin Consultants Inc. say their analysis of energy and fiber strength implications suggests that virgin fiber should be recycled as packaging or other nonwhite grades rather than being deinked to produce white paper; sometimes it is better environmentally to use waste paper as a fuel than to recycle it.
In the same proceedings volume from that conference, on pages 303-308 and 309-312, respectively, there are two papers on fiber fractionation. They are Abstracts # 2628 and 2629:
"Fractionation of Recycled Pulp Obtained from Mixed Paper," by M. Li and M. Tuvundamina. The authors present a method to separate mixtures of mechanical and chemical pulps, based on their different surface morphologies and wetting characteristics. Differences are enhanced by adding adsorbing surfactants and the pulps are then separated using flotation.
"Fiber Fractionation as a Method of Improving Handsheet Properties after Repeated Recycling," by S. Abubakr, G. Scott and J. Klungness. A method for separating mixed office waste paper into long and short fiber fractions is presented. The longer fiber fraction in office waste is stronger and better quality than the short fraction. It can be used in higher grade recycled papers. (3B3.6)
1995-1996 Directory of Recycled Pulp & Paper Mills (issued as a supplement to the May 1995 issue of Progress in Paper Recycling) Published by Doshi & Associates, Inc., 2323 E. Capitol Dr., Appleton, WI 54915 (414/832-9101, fax 832-0870). This provides about 200 pages of information about mills that utilize recovered papers and the products they produce. Recycling mills are listed alphabetically and are cross-indexed by contact person, geographical location, raw materials used and end products produced. There is also a suppliers' listing and a list of mills that produce recycled paper but do not consume wastepaper. (3B3.6)
"Drying Effects of Secondary Fiber on Papermachine Runnability," by Kathie R. Rutledge-Cropsey, John H. Klungness and Said Abubakr. Paper presented at 1995 TAPPI Papermakers Conference. P. 311-317 in the proceedings.
The authors, to make a long story short, have found a way to reverse hornification, at least partially. Hornification is loss of ability to reswell in water, a result of fiber bonding within the fiber wall as it dries. Recycling not only makes paper hard to wet, but it depolymerizes cellulose, generates fines and shortens the fiber length. This lowers the paper's freeness, making it drain more slowly. The fibers become more crystalline, brittle and hard to bond with other fibers. As a result of all this, drainage is slower and wet-web strength is decreased.
Cellulases are known to enhance freeness and strength, but it is not clear whether they do it by hydrolyzing fines or amorphous cellulose on the surface of the fibers. In the study reported here, runnability was compared for never-dried, once-dried and once-dried cellulase-treated furnishes. Conclusions: Cellulases can increase pulp drainage and possibly decrease vacuum requirements and the disintegration time of pulp, thus saving energy. (3B3.61)
"ISO 9000 Standards Dominate Mill Quality Efforts in North America," by Kelly Ferguson, Deputy Editor. Pulp & Paper, June 1995, p. 61-62, 65-66. Mills were surveyed in 1995, and 77% of them were either certified or working toward certification. Many respondents, however, said that the ISO standards were only the basic foundation of a true quality system, and did not automatically result in quality management. 43% said their quality system is fairly well established. (3B3.7)
"Specialty Chemicals Landscape Will Never be the Same," by Jim Young, Executive Editor. Pulp & Paper, April 1995, p. 80-83, 86. Clay, starch, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, sizing, retention/drainage aids, alum, defoamers, and biocides/deposit control are each considered in turn. Since the recession ended, mills have been looking for a smaller number of all-purpose suppliers, which may cause quality to suffer.
Clay: Chemically structured grades are available to replace titanium dioxide, which gives first-rate brightness and opacity but is very expensive. Calcined clay, like calcium carbonate, is also being used to replace titanium dioxide.
Starch: The demand has grown because of the increase in recycled papermaking, and there is a shift from unmodified and oxidized starches to ethylated starches in size-press and coating operations.
Calcium carbonate: Demand for filler and coating pigments is up, not because mills are converting to alkaline at the old rate, but because of the pigment's new use in coating, as well as filler for groundwood, and overseas business. Very popular kinds are the prismatic PCC crystals that allow higher filler loadings (which many would like, because of high pulp prices), and the acid-tolerant PCC.
Sizing: No basically new sizes have appeared recently, but the old ones (AKD and ASA) keep being improved. Bob Watts of Cytec says the uncoated freesheet market will achieve 90% conversion to alkaline papermaking in 1995, and ASA has overtaken AKD as the dominant size because it makes the paper work better in converting operations. He did not say anything about alkaline rosin size, which is being used but not in large quantity.
Alum: Demand in the paper industry has stabilized as a result of almost complete conversion of the freesheet market to alkaline papermaking. (3B3.7)
"Mechanical Pulp Rebounds as Option for Targeted End Uses," by Dave Mackie and Garrie Styan. Pulp & Paper, June 1995, p. 123-126. This is about "the current family of high-quality market mechanical pulps," that is, CTMP (chemi-thermomechanical pulp) and BCTMP (B for bleached), which was introduced about 17 years ago in Sweden. CTMP has met obstacles in the marketplace, the authors say, including papermakers' dislike of mechanical pulps, psychological and legal barriers and poor understanding of the requirements of the papermaker; but they say nothing about the characteristics of the pulp itself that would explain its mixed reception. They do say that it is cheaper than kraft market pulp, or was in the late 1980s. Alkaline papermaking, with calcium carbonate as a filler, has been a boon to CTMP, because the filler helps absorb UV light and retards yellowing. The new layered headboxes have helped too, because the CTMP can be placed in the middle and outer layers, they say (but isn't this the same as an entire sheet made with CTMP?).
Another advantage for CTMP is that the gaps between different paper grades are shrinking; for example, newsprint, specialty communication grades, filled grades, supercalendered grades, and coated grades can be used interchangeably by printers. (They do not explain how this has benefitted CTMP.] Another advantage is that CTMP is bleached without using chlorine compounds, and so is perceived as environmentally friendly. In addition, a CTMP mill can be built for about 40% of what it takes to build a kraft pulp mill.
A disadvantage is the "woodfree rule" that woodfree papers could contain no more than 10% mechanical pulp. Since CTMP is sometimes made from aspen, which has only 16 to 17% lignin in contrast to the 27 to 29% lignin in softwood, the authors suggest that the rule should refer to % lignin instead of groundwood, so that more CTMP would be allowed in fine papers. (3B3.8)
"Chlorine-Free Bleaching Chemicals for Recycled Fibers," by J. Kappel, W. Matzke and H. Selder. Paper presented at the 1994 Recycling Symposium in Boston, p. 231-236 in the proceedings. (Abstr. 2621, PBA, v.28 #4, 1995) The trend is to use lower grade raw materials to produce increasingly higher grade paper products. Some chlorine-free bleaches effective for this purpose are oxygen, ozone, peroxide, FAS (formamidine sulphinic acid) and dithionite. (3B3.83)
"Novel Enzyme Treatment for Dioxin-Free Bleaching of Kraft Pulp with High Kappa Factor and Low ClO2 Substitution," by J.S. Tolan and B.E. Foody. J. Pulp Pap. Sci., v. 21 #6, June 1995, p. J 191-J 196. Dioxin formation is a problem when pulp is bleached with chlorine gas, or when it has a high kappa number; but the authors have found an enzyme treatment that results in undetectable dioxin levels even under these conditions. It consists of a mixture of several different proteins made by a Trichoderma fungus. Its mechanism is not known. (3B3.83)
"Developing Technologies Open Door to Future Closure of Bleach Plant," Nils G. Johansson, Fredrick M. Clark and David E. Fletcher. Pulp & Paper, June 1995, p. 71-72, 75. Although both ECF and TCF bleaching reduce dioxin to undetectable levels, the trend seems to be toward bleach plant closure (i.e., reduction or elimination of effluent). This paper discusses Eka Nobel's bleach plant work toward this goal.
Eka Nobel's testing showed that dioxin in the pulp, from sources other than bleaching, can actually be degraded by chlorine dioxide treatment. (3B3.83)
"Turning Point in ECF-TCF Debate," by Ken L. Patrick. Pulp & Paper, May 1995, p. 9. Patrick's opening sentences summarize this development nicely: "In the past year, the ECF-TCF debate seems to have degraded to a feud, with polarized sides forever quarreling about who is less right. Discussions of bleaching sequences have become unpleasantly similar to arguments about religion, or worse, politics.
"This year's International Non-Chlorine Bleaching Conference began on that note, then quickly settled into an in-depth, comparative analysis of both approaches, and then some."
The provocative keynote address that he refers to (by the president of Södra Cell) is printed in the same issue, and is followed by replies from the president of AF&PA and a senior research advisor, Bruce Fleming, from Boise Cascade. (3B3.83)
"Champion's Great Environmental Leap at Canton," by Dave Antos, Technical Editor. Paper Age, April 1995, p. 16-17. Champion International's pulp mill in Canton, North Carolina, notorious for the dark and smelly state of the Pigeon River and the interstate conflict this engendered, modernized and cleaned up its pulp mill between 1990 and 1994 in order to reduce the mill's impact on air and water quality. Now it is installing a BFP (bleached filtrate process) to improve the quality of effluent further. It is estimated that the organic component of effluent will be reduced by up to 50%; color and chlorine compounds by up to 90%; and overall water use by 10%. This is a potential first step toward a "closed loop" pulp mill.
Champion's paper mill at this location is 100% alkaline and makes over 800 tons of paper a day. (3B3.83)
"The Earth's Premier Renewable Resource," by John W. Roulac. Pulp & Paper, June 1994, p. 156. The author is president and founder of Hemptech. This article was excerpted from Industrial Hemp: Practical ProductsÑPaper to Fabric to Cosmetics. Until 1937, hemp was widely planted and used in the U.S. Then the Marijuana Tax Act created so much red tape for hemp planters, despite the fact that it has no psychoactive qualities, that it became nearly impossible to produce. This is still the case: the U.S. has not issued any permits for large-scale hemp farming in over 40 years.
Hemp, by the way, has a long history of use in papermaking: When C.M. Briquet analyzed the fiber content of early manuscripts dating from 960 AD to the 18th century, he found that all of them were made of hemp or linen, or both. None contained cotton (see APA, Aug. 1990, p. 36c). Hemptech's address is PO Box 820, Ojai, CA 93024-0820 (800/993-HEMP). (3B3.84)
"Behaviour of Residual Lignin in Kraft Pulp During Bleaching," by D. Lachenal, J.C. Fernandes and P. Froment. J. Pulp Pap. Sci., v. 21 #5, May 1995, p. J 173-J 177. Softwood kraft pulp was bleached by five different methods (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and ozone) and the residual lignin was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. Chlorine was most efficient: it depolymerized residual lignin and formed new phenolic groups. Ozone, however, does not depolymerize the residual lignin very efficiently, so it has to be used with other chemicals that can, like oxygen or chlorine dioxide. (3B3.85)
Functional Analysis of Lignins and Their Derivatives, by G.F. Zakis. Translated from the Russian by Robert Porozny and Thomas W. Joyce. TAPPI Press, 1994. 94 pp. $59 for TAPPI members, $88 nonmembers.
This was written in Latvia, behind the Iron Curtain. In fact, the latest reference in the 265-item bibliography is dated 1981. There are some pre-1967 English-language references, but most references are to Russian publications from the 1950s and 1960s.
Zakis seems to have compensated for restricted access to the world's literature in his field by making very good use of what he had. His book is very detailed and technical, full of diagrams, tables, graphs and equations. Each chapter gives directions for the analysis of one type of functional group (methoxy, hydroxyl or carbonyl groups, and acidic groups in lignosulfonic acids), and there is another chapter on nitrogen-containing lignin derivatives. The chapter on hydroxyl groups describes over 18 general and specific methods of analysis. (3B3.86)
"AOX Content of Paper Manufactured with 'Chlorine Free' Pulps,'' by Richard T. Clapp et al. Paper presented at the 1995 TAPPI Papermakers Conference, p. 305-309 in the preprint volume. Even TCF (totally chlorine free) pulps contain some AOX, or adsorbable organic halides, but generally they contain less than non-TCF pulps. TCF deinked pulps, however, have just as much. The AOX originates in the wood chips and the starch. (3B3.91)
"Organochlorines in Perspective," by Bruce I. Fleming. Tappi Journal, v. 78 #5, May 1995, p. 93-98. Many people think that organochlorine compounds are manmade poisons; however, over 2000 naturally produced organohalogen compounds have been identified. Like the manmade compounds, they range from hazardous to beneficial, and from persistent and bioaccumulative to biodegradable. They may be made in huge quantities: Marine and terrestrial emission of methyl chloride is 5,000,000 tons per year, 190 times more than manmade emissions. The author presents a great deal of data, most of it gathered in the last five years, to judge by the bibliography, and all of it eye-opening. For instance, dry grass contains 60 µg/g of organochlorines; yellow cake mix has 210 µg/g; and light slowly destroys the compounds. The last sentence in this article is, "However, it does make sense to eliminate the discharge of persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulating substances, no matter what elements they contain." (3B3.93)
"New Environmental Guidelines for Forestry in Finland." Equip. Mach. Mater. v. 3 #5, Nov.-Dec. 1994, p. 38-40. (Abstr. 1755, PBA v. 28 #4, 1995) Finland launched its New Environmental Program for Forestry in March 1994. The main objectives of forest management will include shifting the emphasis toward preservation of biological diversity, growth potential and maintenance of forest ecosystems; careful timber harvesting; and reforming the main elements of Finnish forestry legislation. Forestry accounts for about 36% of Finland's total exports. (3B3.95)
"Accounting for Sustainable Forestry Management: A Case Study." Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations, 1994. 46 pp. £17.25 (ISBN 92-1-104438-3) (Abstr. 1918, PBA v. 28 #5, 1995) A hypothetical case study was prepared showing how full environmental cost accounting would affect a company that implemented a policy of sustainable development. Various degrees of tolerable environmental degradation are considered. The conceptual framework for estimating environmental costs is discussed. (3B3.95)
A brief news item headed "Turning Recovered Paper into Power" is on p. 24 of the January Tappi Journal. It says, "Recovered paper can now be used as fuel for coal-fired boiler plants. The process, called paper pelletizing, can divert waste from landfills and use it as an energy source, according to David T. Modi, Director of Government Affairs in the Washington, DC, office of Georgia-Pacific Corp.
"The process, which includes densifying and processing the paper into a pellet form, will be incorporated in the waste recovery plans of Ashley County, AR, where the community plans to sell the pelletized paper as a boiler fuel to the local Georgia-Pacific paper mill." (3B3.96)
"Biological Treatment of Organic Household Waste," by G. Gavelin. Eur. Papermaker v. 2 #6, Oct. 1994, p. 16-18. (Abstract 1263, PBA , v. 28 #3, 1995) A Danish biogas plant, built in 1991, is described. It takes garbage (up to 20,000 tons) and converts 60% of the organic matter into methane gas, processes 25% into compost and eliminates 15% as contaminants. The process was developed by BTA of Munich. (3B3.96)
"Recycling Legislation: Too Far, Too Fast?" by R. Cockram. Pap. Eur. v. 6, #7, Oct. 1994, p. 27. The abstract (#402, PBA, v. 28 #1, 1995) says, " Too much recycling produces a list of harmful effects. It would seem that a balanced mix of recycling and incineration for energy recovery is best for the environment, incineration itself being environmentally acceptable provided the appropriate technology is used and the necessary emission controls are in place." (3B3.96)
"A Burning Issue," by L. Webb. Paper Focus v. 8 #94, Aug. 1994, p. 17. (Abstract 399, PBA , v. 28 #1, 1995) This is about incineration of waste paper, which has about half the energy value of fuel oil. Fillers in the paper can make it harder to burn, though calcium carbonate filler could neutralize sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions. Chlorine-based compounds, dyes and other compounds may give undesirable air emissions. Waste paper incineration in the UK and Europe is briefly surveyed. (3B3.96)
"Recovering Usable Fiber from Pulp Mill/Paper Mill Sludge," by C.S. Moss and D. Dovacs. Paper presented at 1994 Recycling Symposium, Boston, 15-18 May, p. 359-378. (Abstr. 2638, PBA v. 28 #6, 1995) Sludge contains good quality reusable fiber, which can be extracted by the method described here, reducing landfill solids by about 60%. (3B3.96)
"A Review of the Maine 'Appendix A' Sludge Research Program," by William R. Sherman. Tappi Journal, June 1995, p. 135-150. The effects of landspreading wastewater sludges from pulp and paper mills were investigated by examining a) the fate of chlorinated organic materials in landspread sludge and b) the impact of sludge on plant growth and wildlife. No negative effects of any sort could be detected. Similar results have been found in studies in Wisconsin and Ohio. (3B3.96)
"Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Printing Papers," by A. Kämä, T. Pajula and T. Kutinlahti. Paper presented at the First International Conference & Exhibit on Paper & Board Recycling, London, Nov. 8-10, 1994, organized by Pulp & Paper International. Summarized on p. 79 of Paper & Board Recycling, May 1995.
Life cycle analysis of waste newsprint indicated that energy recovery is environmentally preferable to intensified recycling. The case is not so clear for magazine papers. The authors suggest that the goal should not be a blind maximizing of recycling but a healthy balance economically, ecologically, and politically between recycling and energy recovery. (3B3.96)
"Waste Paper as a Source for Fibers and Energy in Recycled Paper Mills," by M. Steinbeis. Paper presented at the Second Global Conference on Paper and the Environment, held at Frankfurt, Germany, 24-26 April 1994, p. 71-84. (Abstr. 1714, PBA, v. 28 #4, 1995)
Recycling is becoming more expensive with increased recycled fiber content in waste paper, because it increases the amount of waste and broken fibers to be disposed of. For economic reasons, the author advocates using waste paper as a fuel in recycled paper mills, together with fiber and other waste from the recycling process. (3B3.96)
"International Database Launched," short news item in PIMA Magazine, May 1995, p. 22. French, Finnish, Swedish and British paper organizations will develop a joint international database covering the world's pulp and paper information. It will be marketed worldwide under the name of Paperbase International. Pira International will collect the information and coordinate production. Paperbase will be available in hard copy formats, on CD-ROM and online.
The other three organizations are the Centre Technique de Papier (CTP), Oy Keskuslaboratorio Centrallaboratorio AB (KCL), and the Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute (STFI).
A letter to subscribers from Pira International in June said that Paper and Board Abstracts would be called Paperbase Abstracts from the July issue on. Beginning with January 1996, it will expand into A4 format. It is part of the same joint venture, but presumably this will be the paper manifestation of the database that PIMA Magazine called Paperbase International. Coverage will be expanded and the number of abstracts is expected to double. The present subscription price is £550 per year. (5B5)
1995-1996 Published Search Master Catalog. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. This is a list of bibliographies that summarize completed research from both the U.S. Government and worldwide sources. Each one contains the 50 to 250 latest abstracts of reports and studies on a given topic. Bibliographies are updated for each order. Each Published Search costs $65 plus handling fee, within the U.S. The 50-page catalog is free; call 703/487-4650, or fax 703/321-8547. They also have a free NTIS Catalog of Products and Services.
There are four published searches on papermaking (cotton, fillers, fire retardants and corrosion). There is one on "Analytical Chemiluminescence --Measuring Methods. EDB" (order number PB95-875639CDO). There is another on "Molecular Sieves. NTIS" (order number PB94-873742CDO). And another on "Air Pollution Effects on Materials. NTIS" (order number PB94-879079CDO). The letters after the title are the database the bibliography is compiled from. Chemiluminescence is an analytical method that can indicate how fast paper is deteriorating. Molecular sieves are used as a filler in some papers to extend their life by absorbing degradation products and pollutant gases. Air pollution is a major cause of paper deterioration.
The searches are grouped under 38 broad topics, including administration and management, biomedical technology, chemistry, industrial and mechanical engineering, natural resources and earth sciences, and physics. (5D)