"Detailed Analysis of Geometry and Intensity of Wire Marks," by H. Praast and L. Gottsching. Papier 44(10), Oct. 1990, p. 529-537. (In German) Two-dimensional fourier transform is used to analyse the effects of wire marks on paper. The direction and spacing of the marks, and the parts of the paper most frequently marked, can be determined. (From PBA 24(2), 1991)
"Derivative Infrared Spectroscopy and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis of Ancient Paper Documents," by V. Mosini et al. Cellul. Chem. Technol. 24(2), Mar.-Apr. 1990, p. 263-272. For determining the functions of oxidative agents on the cellulose chains, FTIR has some drawbacks that can be overcome by use of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA).
The 1991 TAPPI Test Methods (2 vols.) are available for $70 (members) or $104 (nonmembers). There is a one-volume set of TAPPI Useful Methods too: $25 members, $38 nonmembers. Both may be ordered by calling TAPPI's service line, 800/ 332-8686. The order numbers are, respectively, 0104TM9l and 0104UM91.
The unedited proceedings of the 1991 TAPPI Papermakers Conference, all 597 pages of it, cost $89 for members and $134 for nonmembers. Call 800/332-8686.
"Bowater Uses Restoration Technology to Save Calhoun Mechanical Drawings," by R. Wayne Shannon. Pulp & Paper, Mar. 1991, p. 123. The author is president of ComputerGraphics/Atlanta, a firm that uses scanning and computer-aided design to make accurate copies of otherwise unusable mechanical drawings that are deteriorated with age and use. It saves tracing them over by hand, and works when microfilming them won't. The documents are converted into high-resolution (up to 1,600 dpi) raster images or completely vectorized graphic files.
Neutral/Alkaline Papermaking Short Course, Oct. 16-18, 1990, Orlando--Notes. 224 pp. $63 for TAPPI members, $95 others. Order No. 01063090. To order, call 1-800-332-8686.
The 7th "edition" [i.e., installment] of the Paper Conservation Catalog has been published by the AIC (American Institute of Conservation) Book and Paper Group. Like the other parts published to date, it systematically documents the practices of American paper conservators regarding a limited number of topics. This time the topics are Washing (49 pages), Support Problems (123 pages) and Spot Tests (80 pages). Other published chapters include Bleaching, Alkalization and Neutralization, and Drying and Flattening. They can be ordered from the AIC (see List of Useful Addresses). This is a valuable, unique and remarkable ongoing publication.
"Studies on the Degradation Products of Paper with and Without Pollutants in a Closed Environment: 1. Preliminary Results," by E.J. Parks, C.M. Guttman, K.L. Jewett and F.E. Brinckman. A report prepared [by NIST] for the National Archives and Records Administration, May 1990. Issued Dec. 1990. NISTIR 4456. Order from NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161.
The abstract says "We have developed methods using Mass Spectroscopy, Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography to detect degradation products of rag paper and newsprint in the presence of some common air pollutants. We have searched for products that might themselves be autocatalytic to encourage degradation of these materials. In particular, we have looked at gaseous degradation products and those degradation products which are mobile and which may be transferred from one paper to another by surface or gas phase diffusion.
"Six organic acids have been tentatively identified as degradation products which are surface mobile an newsprint and rag paper. Acetic acid is a major organic acid gas phase component. The results of these studies were correlated with more traditional bulk paper properties tests."
"Bibliography of Papermaking for Children & Young Adults," compiled by Helen Lee. TAPPI Press, 1990. A list of 36 book references, annotated, on an 11 x 17 sheet of thick paper, folded. ISBN 0-89852-505-5. The earliest book in the list was published in 1959.
Manufacture of Pulp and Paper: Science and Engineering Concepts. For middle school science classes. $8 for TAPPI members, $12 others. order # 0101Rl48. Call 1-800-3328686.
"Woodfree Papers. Groundwood Pulp Improves Appeal," by R. Cockram. Pulp Pap. Int. 32/8, Aug. 1990, 53-54. A market survey of 40 free-sheet specifiers in northern Europe revealed that 70%f then saw no significant difference between the 100% chemical pulp papers and those with 10% groundwood; the other 30% saw benefits in the 10%. groundwood papers. [The abstract in Paper & Board Abstracts does not say what kind of groundwood pulp was used, or whether it might have been semichemical pulp of some sort.]
"Pacific Rim Report," by Brian Orgill. Tappi Journal Feb. 1991, P. 32. This report is about a single company's mill in Thailand, and plans for a new pulp mill just like the old one, which was set up by Phoenix Pulp & Paper Ltd 1982 to make kenaf market pulp, but which has now switched over almost entirely to bamboo and eucalyptus as fiber it sources. Thai farmers found that kenaf was not a profitable enough crop. To ensure a good supply of raw material, c supplies local farmers with bamboo and eucalyptus seedlings.
"A Forestry Point of View," by R. Wilson. Pap. Eur. 2/6, Sept. 1990, P. 37. 807. of global deforestation is due to wood consumption for fuel, food, clothing and support for people, the author says; only 17% is for papermaking.
"Machine Clothing Suppliers Respond to Recycled Fibers," an American Papermaker staff report. Am. Papermaker Jan. 1991, P. 30, 32. "Wires" or forming fabrics on paper machines fill up with shorter fibers when recycled paper is being made on the machine. Recycled fibers retain more water and always contain more contaminants and if they have been deinked they deposit deinking chemicals and resins on the fabric. Special clothing and cleaning system have been developed to meet these challenges.
"Office Wastepaper is a Vast Resource of Recyclable Fiber," by Jackie Cox. Amer. Papermaker Feb. 1991, P. 45, 47. The kinds of paper most in demand for recycling are white ledger and computer printout papers. Not so popular is xerographic paper. In the "impossible" category are yellow pads, carbon paper, waxed paper, paper lined with foil, fax paper and blueprints, according to one source quoted. The collection service is the key to a good recycling program.
"With a Zero-Effluent Mill Millar Western will Meet the Stringent Saskatchewan Standards," by S. Stevenson. Pulp & Paper Can. 91/4, Apr. 1990, P. 16-18. The world's first zero-effluent CTMP mill is being built at Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan. Effluent will be distilled, then incinerated.
Environmental Science & Technology is published by the American Chemical Society monthly and covers the whole range of environmental issues (which must include recycling, forestry practices and dioxin, though these are not in the issue at hand) in articles and in a "Research" section that summarizes ongoing research in about 20 different projects. Since this is the journal's 25th anniversary, discounts on subscriptions are being offered. A yearly personal subscription for nonmembers, normally $73, is $54 until June 15. Contact American Chemical Society, Marketing Communications Dept., 1155 16th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (202/8724363.
Materials Interactions Relevant to the Pulp, Paper and Wood Industries. Proceedings of a conference cosponsored by TAPPI in San Francisco, Spring 1990. 33 papers, 357 pages. $40 to nonmembers. Order from Materials Research Society, Publications Dept., 9800 McKnight Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15237 (412/367-3012; fax 412/367-4373). Order Code: 197J. ISBN 1-55899-086-0.
Alkaline Conversion: Another Mill's Experience," by Rob Meier and Raymond Lam. A presentation for EXFOR '90. 14 of text and 14 of tables and graphs, on Island Paper's May 1090 alkaline conversion., from the perspective of two process engineers. The article covers the preparation for conversion and some of the experiences associated with sizing during the first year of operation. $10 from CPPA.