Phil Luner, "Evaluation of Paper Permanence." Wood Sci. Technology. 22:81-97 (1988). Much of this paper is based on the thesis of R.D. Cardwell, from the early 1970s. Methods of reducing the variability of fold test results are described, including one that involves calculation of the load value that would break the paper at a certain number of folds. The rates of loss of physical properties were better correlated with empirical stability indices than with activation energy for pyrolysis of pulp samples. Unfortunately, the paper was carelessly edited, and the tables and figures that should support the text are inadequately headed and laid out. The text itself could have been clearer without sacrificing technical detail. But the matters investigated are important and the research appears both sound and ingenious.
F. Lyth Hudson, "Permanence of Paper." In Fundamental Properties of Paper Related to its Uses, v.2 about 1974). A good summary of research to the than this paper was given, and an interesting discussion afterwards was recorded: present were Julius Grant and E.L. Graminski, among others. In the next to last paragraph of the paper, Hudson says,
Edwards1 found that a paper loaded with calcium carbonate did not take up sulphur dioxide as fast as expected. Singh2 has found that paper containing calcium carbonate takes up some sulphur dioxide initially, but the rate of uptake slows down to the same level as other papers long before the calcium carbonate is neutralized. This may mean that calcium carbonate, though obviously a highly desirable filler, may not protect the paper from pollution as much as was originally hoped. This matter really requires further elucidation.
1C.J. Edwards, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester, 1967.
2S. Singh, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manchester, 1974.
Raymond A. Young and Roger M. Rowell, eds. Cellulose: Structure, Modification, and Hydrolysis. Wiley, 1986. 379 pp. $64.50. Reviewed favorably (mostly) in the July-Aug. American Scientist by Candace H. Haigler.
A rough and ready index to the first three 1989 issues of this Newsletter is available from the editorial office, in return for a self-addressed stamped envelope.
Historic Textile and Paper Materials II: Conservation and Characterization, edited by Howard L. Needles and S. Haig Zeronian. ACS Symposium Series No. 410) Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1989. Clothbound, 249+ pp. $54.95. ISBN 0-8412-1683-5. To order, write ACS Distribution Office, Dept. 390, 1155 Sixteenth St. NW, Washington, DC 20036, or call 800/ACS-5558. This is the proceedings of the symposium in Los Angeles, Sept. 1988.
The Paper Conservator v. 12, 1988 (received May 1989) makes up Part 3 of the papers from the 10th Anniversary Conference of the Institute of Paper Conservation in 1986. A notable contribution in this volume, worth returning to from time to time, is Vincent Daniels' "The Discolouration of Paper on Aging." It covers foxing, water stains, and migration (the reality of which it questions, because of the lack of evidence), ink-produced images, light discoloration, metal-induced discoloration, airburn, and degradation of deposited volatile materials (e.g., thymol). The mechanism at work in all of these effects, he says, may be induced oxidation, caused by oxidizing gases and free radicals. It can be measured by means of the Russell effect, which involves the use of special sensitive photographic paper. The author's address is: Department of Conservation and Technical Services, British Museum, London WC1B 3DG, England.
The 1989 Papermakers Conference Proceedings are available from TAPPI Press for $50.25 members, $75.00 list. To order, call 1-800-332-8686. (The price differentials for TAPPI conventions and publications can be gotten round by joining. Application blanks are in every issue of Tappi Journal)
"Procurement Guidelines for Paper Containing Recovered Materials," Pulp & Paper Sept. 1989, P. 49. A summary of the EPA guideline.
The September Pulp & Paper features a 20-article report on "Environmental Challenges in the '90s," oriented to the technology of control of water and air quality and solid waste.
The Pocket Edition Competitive Grade Finder identifies alkaline papers among 4000 brands classified into over 1000 categories by type or use. $20 ($24.50 in ), postage paid m prepaid orders. Order from Grade Finders, Inc., 662 Exton Commons, PO Box 944, Exton, PA 19341.