[Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to compiling the yearly subject index.]
International Directory of Training in Conservation of Cultural Heritage. 1994 ed. Prepared by ICCROM and published by the Getty Conservation Institute, 4503 Glencoe Ave., Marina Del Rey, CA 90292-6537 (310/822-2299). $15. Available in the U.K. through IIC. (1D)
"A Guide to Interviews," by Nancy Bell, Judith Chantry, and Candy Kuhl. Conservation News, Nov. 1992, p. 9-11. In the U.K., new graduates of conservation programs, like graduates in the U.S., do not usually step straight into professional level jobs, but must look for internships, do voluntary work, or work at a junior level. This article is a fairly detailed guide to assembling a portfolio, writing an inquiry letter and application form, giving references and a resume, finding out what the employer really wants, and more. It gives nine "interview tips," ten typical questions that the applicant may be asked, and tells what to do if rejected--or accepted. (1D1)
Conservation and the Herbarium, postprints of the one-day meeting held at the Liverpool Museum on May 14, 1993. Edited by Bob Child. ISBN 0 0950726869. Published by and available from the Institute of Paper Conservation, Leigh Lodge, Leigh, Worcester, WR6 5LB, England, for £10. (1F)
Archive Buildings in the United Kingdom 1977-1992. £17.95 plus postage from HMSO Publications Center, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, England (fax 071 873 8200). Chapters cover themes of the 1977 British Standard 5454, Recommendation for Storage of Archival Documents, e.g., choice of site, security, fire prevention, and control of storage environment; and other chapters on planning, functions, and layout. Thirty case studies. (1N)
The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration is the National Archives' professional-looking new publication, replacing the quarterly "News From the Archives." It will appear in September, November, January, March and May--five times a year. Volume 1 #1 was the September 1994 issue, and it had 36 pages full of announcements and short news articles. It is not a journal; it is not a newspaper; it must be a newsletter. Readers are invited to submit articles for publication. In the masthead it says, "Articles are selected for publication by the editors in consultation with subject experts. Final responsibility for the decision to publish rests with the Archivist of the United States. Published material does not necessarily represent the views of the National Archives and Records Administration; indeed, some material included will challenge policies and practices of the agency."
To inquire about being put on the mailing list, write to National Archives and Records Administration, Public Affairs (N-PA), Washington, DC 20408. For editorial matters, write to Editor, The Record, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408. (2)
Conservation and Preservation in Small Libraries, essays based on the conference papers of the Fifth Anniversary Conference of the Parker Library Conservation Project. Published Nov. 1994. Available from the Parker Library Conservation Project, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge CB2 1RH, England (tel. 0223 33 8025; fax 0223 571478) for $50 (£27) plus postage and packing; no credit cards accepted. 160 pp, 200 half-tones. Edition limited to 500 copies.
The 18 essays are supplemented with much new material and have all been updated. Two of them have appeared since the conference in the Paper Conservator: Nicholas Hadgraft's "Storing and Boxing the Parker Manuscripts" and Chris Clarkson's "Rediscovering Parchment: The Nature of the Beast."
The five sections are headed
The Bibliographer and the Conservator (Contributors are R.I. Page,
David McKitterick, Mildred Budny and Nicolas Barker)
Buildings (essays by an architect, a services engineer and a conservation officer, Hadgraft)
Materials (Chris Clarkson, Cheryl Porter and Nancy Bell, on parchment, pigment identification and paper manuscripts)
Case Studies (Deborah Willis, Nicholas Pickwoad and Melvin Jefferson)
Techniques (Nicholas Hadgraft on boxing; Anthony Cains, one essay on in situ treatment and one on development of non-adhesive binding; and Nicholas Pickwoad on good and bad repair)
Epilogue (Anthony Cains on Sydney Morris Cockerell) (2.4)
The Bibliographic Control and Preservation of Latin Americanist Library Resources: A Status Report with Suggestions, by Dan C. Hazen. 131 pp. 1994. $20 from ARL/OMS Publications, Dept. #0692 (202/296-8656, fax 202/872-0884).
Books printed in Latin America make up a significant part of the holdings of U.S. libraries. They are often on groundwood paper, and most of them need microfilming almost as soon as they are received, because they deteriorate so fast. This means that a central record of microfilmed books must be kept so that libraries will not duplicate each other's work. This is what makes bibliographic control important. This report presents an analysis of a 550-item sample of Latin Americanist materials published between 1935 and 1965. It found that bibliographic control was almost ubiquitous, but that only a small portion of Latin American imprints had been microfilmed. The sample is analyzed in text and graphs, and the detailed analysis provides a model for future efforts. The report lists general conclusions, offers suggestions for the future, and indicates some of the questions yet to be pursued. (2.6)
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers. Washington, DC: EPA/NIOSH, 1991. Looseleaf format. $24 from New Orders, Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Cite stock number S/N 055-000-00390-4.
This publication is not oriented to preservation of collections, but to human health. It may still be a useful reference book, because it provides valuable information on how to develop a building profile to assist in preventing indoor air quality problems; how to create an indoor air quality management plan; identify causes and solutions to problems as they occur; identify appropriate control strategies; and decide whether outside technical assistance is needed. Sections cover air quality sampling; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems; moisture problems; and where to find additional information sources. Also included are a wide variety of practical checklists and forms to assist in diagnosing problems and managing indoor air quality. (2C)
"Leakage Prediction for Buildings, Cases, Bags and Bottles," by Stefan Michalski. Studies in Conservation 39/3, Aug. 1994, p. 169-186. This comprehensive, technical paper is relevant to environmental control, effect of enclosures, and other applications. The "leakage" in the title refers to air, vapor and particulates. The author reviews the literature and presents a roster of models developed since 1902.
There are 39 equations, 11 figures, one table, 26 references, and a list of all 60 of the symbols used in the 39 equations, with their definitions and units of measurement. (2C1)
Symposium on Air Infiltration, Ventilation, and Moisture Transfer, 1986, Proceedings. Sponsored by the Building Environment and Thermal Envelope Council (BETEC) and other organizations. 485 pages. $40 plus shipping from NIBS Publications, 1201 L St., NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005-4024 (202/289-7800, fax 289-1092). The publisher's blurb says the major objective of the symposium was to develop a mass of research which could form the nucleus of design guidelines for building envelopes. (2C1)
Bugs, Mold & Rot. [Proceedings of] a Workshop on Residential Moisture Problems, Health Effects, Building Damage, and Moisture Control, May 20-21, 1991. Erv Bales and William B. Rose, eds. Published 1992. $25 from National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) (202/289-7800, fax 289-1092); Catalog No. 3009. (This workshop and its proceedings are now known as "Bugs, Mold & Rot I," because there has been a subsequent workshop of the same title, the proceedings for which sell for $35.)
Among the papers in this volume are a description of a forthcoming ASTM manual on moisture control in buildings, by Heinz R. Trechsel (p. 57-58), and a review of health effects of mold and other microorganisms ("Biological Agents and the Home Environment," by John D. Spengler, Harriet Burge and H. Jenny Su, p. 11-18).
The Spengler paper looks like it will be very useful to people who are gathering information and references on the health effects of mold. It reviews studies that have correlated health effects and dampness or mold, and presents data from these studies in five tables. An excerpt:
"Besides direct condensation, elevated relative humidity allows hygroscopic materials in the environment to absorb sufficient water to allow growth of some fungi. For example, the primary component of dust in most environments is human skin scales which are extremely hygroscopic. At relative humidities above 60%, these particles absorb enough water to support growth of a number of fungal species as well as the highly allergenic house dust mite. . . . In summer, air conditioners that provide inadequate dehumidification can allow extensive growth of fungi on dust-caked filters. Spores from this growth can subsequently be spread into the occupied space."
The list of 19 references includes papers in two proceedings and 12 journals, published in five countries, 1954 to 1991. The journals are:
Am. J. Ind. Med.
Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.
Brit. Med. J.
Int. J. Epidem.
J. Am. Med. Assoc.
J. Asthma Res.
J. Epidem. & Community Health
J. Laryngol. Otol.
J. Roy. Soc. Health
Ned. Tijdsch. Geneeskd.
Dr. Spengler is the Director of the Exposure Assessment and Engineering program, in the Department of Environmental Health, at the Harvard School of Public Health. (2C1.3)
"Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Efficiencies of Residencial Air Filters," by Wayne T. Davis, C. Cornell, and Maureen Dever. Tappi Journal, Sept. 1994, p. 180-186. Eleven commercially available air filters were evaluated to determine their efficiencies in removing particles of 0.5-4.0 µm, at typical velocities of 450-750 ft/min. Efficiencies were low for small particle sizes, because of the higher velocities in home systems, and they were different from the values derived from traditional filtration theory. This shows a need to develop correction factors to allow for the higher velocities and larger particle sizes in home systems. (2C3)
"Building Out Pests," by Colin Pearson. AICCM Bulletin 19 No. 1-2, 1993 (received Oct. 1994), p. 41-55. The building should be considered the first barrier to insect entry, and plays an important part in integrated pest management. Pearson systematically covers all aspects of this approach: for insects, this means the building surroundings, layout and fabric, housekeeping and sanitation, fittings and structures. He reviews the control of five types of insects: cockroaches, silverfish, termites, beetles and moths. Vertebrates that may become pests (bats, rodents, birds, cats, skunks and possums) can be controlled by measures similar to those used for insects. In sealing off openings, he warns not to seal in a skunk. 22 references. (2C3.1)
Final Report of the Archives Preservation Needs Assessment Field Test. RLG, 1994. The Commission on Preservation and Access developed a preservation decision-making tool for archives, and the Research Libraries Group supervised the field testing of it in the archives of 15 RLG member libraries. Results are presented in this report. Participants concluded that this particular instrument is not adequate, but said work on needs-assessment tools was worthwhile and should continue. The report is available from the Document Supply Center (email@example.com) of the Research Libraries Group, 1200 Villa St., Mountain View, CA 94041-1100. (2D)
"Survey of Electronic Imaging Projects," compiled by Dorothy Wright Moore for the ALCTS RLMS Electronic Imaging Technologies Committee. ALCTS Newsletter, v.5 no. 5, 1994 (received Oct.), p. 64-67. Projects were rounded up by conducting two surveys, scanning library lists, and searching the literature. The resulting list of projects is available through the ALA Gopher server and as part of the IMAGE-LIB Clearinghouse for Image Databases available on the University of Arizona Library's Gopher server. This article describes 23 projects. The rest (E through Z) will be described in the next issue of the ALCTS Newsletter. (2E3)
First Steps for Handling & Drying Water Damaged Materials, by Miriam Kahn. 1994. $35 plus $5 shipping and handling from MBK Consulting, 60 N. Harding Rd., Columbus, OH 43209 (614/239-8977 or firstname.lastname@example.org). (Note: This is a new address and telephone number.) The instructions and diagrams in this manual are printed on uncoated card stock and come in a looseleaf binder. Simple disaster response procedures are listed in the beginning along with an abbreviated list of supplies, disaster recovery firms and suppliers. (2F3.4)
Biodeterioration of Cultural Property 2, edited by Kenzo Toishi, Hideo Arai, Toshijo Kenjo and Katsuji Yamano. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Biodeterioration of Cultural Property, Yokohama, Japan, 1992. Price 17,000 yen, from the Japanese Institute of Insect Damage to Cultural Properties, Grand Mer Ochiai No. 203, 1-9-11 Kami Ochiai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161, Japan. (2H)
"Books at Risk: Mould at a University of Sydney Library," by Diana Giese. National Library of Australia News, Feb. 1994, p.13-15. The editor's introduction says, "Neil Radford, the University Librarian, discusses the preservation crisis facing libraries across Australia," and there is a picture of Mr. Radford showing one of the affected books for the camera. The trouble began in 1983, when some of the 350,000 books that had been moved to a new remote storage building less than a year previously were found to be affected by mold. By 1987, 12% were affected; by September 1993, a third of the books were affected. Some remote storage buildings are air conditioned, but this one is not. Air conditioning was vetoed when the building was planned, because of the cost ($200,000). But the costs are already escalating, because it is now clear that air conditioning is necessary; the books and the area must be cleaned, and there are possible health hazards for readers and the staff. The Senate of the University would not provide the money for this, so Radford had to ask for the money to be taken out of the next year's budget.
It took courage to have this story written and published. Perhaps it can serve as an object lesson for other libraries in Australia and elsewhere. Two similar stories have been reported in this Newsletter: Patricia Morris's story of a mold invasion in the South Carolina Archives (July 1994, p. 39), and William Chamberlain's report of methods used to keep mold under control in the Virginia State Library after an outbreak affecting 5,000 volumes (Nov. 1991, p. 109). (2H1.1)
"Managing a Mold Invasion: Guidelines for Disaster Response," by Lois Olcott Price (Technical Series No. 1, from the Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts, Philadelphia, 1994). This bulletin covers health concerns, first response, inactivation procedures, fungicides, cleaning and disinfecting, follow-up, and prevention planning. There is a bibliography and a list of service providers for mold disaster recovery. $3.50 postpaid from CCAHA, 264 S. 23rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19103 (215/545-0613).
Monona Rossol reviewed this bulletin for ACTS FACTS and said most of the information was well-organized and useful, but that a wet vacuum would not remove the mold from the air passed through it. Instead she recommended a HEPA-filtered vacuum, available from most safety suppliers. (2H2)
"Ageless Oxygen Absorber: Chemical and Physical Properties," by David W. Grattan and Mark Gilberg. Studies in Conservation 39 no. 3, Aug. 1994, p. 210-214. The chemical and physical properties of Ageless®, which comes in five varieties, are described. Only one variety has been used for preserving museum materials, Ageless Z. Criteria for museum use are put forward and certain problems, such as heat generation and hydrogen evolution, are discussed. (2H3.4)
"Starch-Based Hot Melts for Adhesive Applications," by Mitchell Blumenthal and Charles W. Paul. Tappi Journal 77/9, Sept. 1994, p. 193-195. The big problem with conventional hot-melt adhesives is that they do not disperse when the paper they hold together is recycled, but instead they soften and form what papermakers call "stickies" in the paper. (And the singular of stickies is "stickie.") Starch can be processed as a thermoplastic by a Warner-Lambert 1987 patent. Warner-Lambert and National Starch and Chemical Co. have developed a series of starch-based hot-melt adhesive compositions for packaging. They are probably trying to introduce it on the market now. This article compares the performance of one of the starch-based hot-melts with that of EVA hot-melt adhesive, and illustrates for us how recycling has given the concept of reversibility a place in the paper industry. (3.73)
The Paper Conservator, Vol. 18, 1994. Nancy Bell and Katherine Swift, eds. Contents:
The Conservation of Charles Dickens's Manuscripts--Annette
Ships Plans on Oil and Resin Impregnated Tracing Paper: A Practical Repair Procedure--Paul Cook and Julie Dennin
Storing and Boxing the Parker Library Manuscripts--Nicholas Hadgraft
Revealing Van Gogh: An Examination of his Papers--Liesbeth Heenk
Housing Single-Sheet Material: The Development of the Fascicule System at the Bodleian Library--Helen Lindsay and Christopher Clarkson
Chalk or Pastel: The Use of Colored Media in Early Drawings--Thea Burns
The HRHRC Diethyl Zinc Mass Deacidification Project--James Stroud
A Treatment of a Publisher's Paste-up--Yasmin Khan
Setting up a Board-Slotting Program--Edward Simpson
A Conservation Treatment to Remove Residual Iron from Platinum Prints--Megan Gent and Jacqueline Rees (3A3)
Register of Artists, Engravers, Booksellers, Bookbinders, Printers, & Publishers in New York City, 1821-1842, by Sid and Betty Huttner. The announcement in CBBAG Newsletter, Autumn 1994 (p. 32), does not give date of publication, but does say that it is 299 pages long, clothbound. It sells for $30 to BSA members, $50 to others. Contact the Bibliographic Society of America, Box 397, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10163.
The book contains nearly 5,000 names and 50,000 addresses of 19th century artisans and craftspeople, with occupations, firm names, and so on, to help in dating undated books and identifying the people associated with them. (3A5)
"El Libro y su Estructura en el Tiempo: Cuatro Ensayos" (The Book and its Structure in Time: Four Essays), by Gary Frost. Conservaplan Documentos No. 4, 1993. Issued by Biblioteca Nacional de Venezuela, Centro Nacional de Conservación Documental, Caracas. Commentary, selection and translation by Lourdes Blanco. 44 pages, alkaline. Attractively printed on thin cream paper.
The four essays are:
Bookbindings and Other Bibliophily: Essays in Honour of Anthony Hobson. Dennis E. Rhodes, ed. 1994. £75 from the British Library, for the UK market only; North & South American orders should go to Oak Knoll Books (302/328-7232). 368 pages. ISBN 88 85033 26 1.
Anthony Hobson ran the Sotheby's book department for some twenty years and has published books on the history of libraries and the history of bookbinding. In 1976 he published a review of Philip Smith's New Directions in Bookbinding in the Times Literary Supplement, which was reprinted in the Abbey Newsletter for October 1978.
This book of 12 essays and a biographical introduction and a Hobson bibliography to 1993 constitutes a festschrift in celebration of his 70th birthday. Contributors include Nicolas Barker, Giles Barber, Mirjam Foot, and Jan Storm Van Leeuwen. Most of the essays are about the history of the book trade, book collectors, cover decoration and other matters of interest to historical bibliographers. (3A5)
Functional Developments in Bookbinding, by Graham Pollard and Geoffrey Wakeman. Published in a limited edition by Francis Wakeman, Kidlington, Oxford, England, together with Oak Knoll Books, New Castle, DE, 1993. £150. 95 pp. 31 plates and 6 tipped-in colored cards. (3A5)
"Some New Ideas for Dating Ballpoint Inks--A Feasibility Study," by Valery N. Aginsky. Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFSCA, v.38, no. 5, Sept. 1993, p. 1134-1150. Four techniques are described, all of which are based on the rates of color change in inks as a result of reaction with chemicals. The principles on which these techniques are based are: 1) the older the ink the slower the change, 2) older inks have a different ratio of volatile and dye components, 3) fewer volatile components can be extracted by gas chromatography from the ink on paper as it ages, and 4) age changes in resins and other colorless nonvolatile components can be detected by thin-layer chromatography under UV, evaluated by using scanning densitometry. This paper was originally presented at the 4th European Conference for Document Examiners, August 1992, Linköping, Sweden. The author's address is given. (3A9.32)
"De Bepaling van de Vouwweerstand van Zwak/Oud Papier en van Papier met een Laag m2-Gewicht" (Determining the Folding Resistance of Weak Old Paper and Paper of a Low Caliper [gsm]), by C.J. Stadig and R. Hildering. Restaurator (Rotterdam) 23, #1, 1993, p. 18-25. Dutch with English summary. The abstract (#31-396 in Art & Archaeology Technical Abstracts) says,
"Despite its inaccuracy, folding endurance is often regarded as the best indication of a paper's mechanical strength [except for weak and thin papers]. Using data from the literature, the authors developed a roll-slide folder, which they used to measure the strength after folding. The instrument is suited to test delicate papers and shows little variance between tests." (3A9.7)
"An Investigation of Some Environmental Factors Affecting Migration-induced Degradation in Paper," by John Slavin & Jim Hanlan. Restaurator v.13, 1992, p. 78-94. "Acid migration" is like the weather--everybody talks about it but nobody does anything about it. Slavin and Hanlan looked up previous research on migration of degradation products and did some research of their own. What they found does not always support common assumptions, although everyone has seen examples of mat burn, discoloration from newspaper clippings stuck between book pages, and so on.
Not all volatile degradation products are acidic. Both William J. Barrow and Vincent Daniels have cited cases in which products migrating from a material of higher pH affected a more acidic neighbor. This may indicate oxidative degradation, which produces peroxides and discoloration.
Buffered storage enclosures are commonly advocated for most records and artifacts, but there are some questions about how much good they do. For instance, Santucci found that an alkaline reserve could only be effective in slowing degradation if the RH was 70% or higher. Has anybody confirmed this? And how important is it for enclosures to have an alkaline buffer if the environment is very dry? or very cold? So the authors studied the effectiveness of buffered and unbuffered interleaving tissue in preventing migration of volatiles from old, degraded newspaper to new Whatman filter paper. They aged the papers under different conditions, apart and together, encapsulated in Mylar and "exposed." When RH in the aging oven was high (78-82%), just as Santucci said, the buffered interleaving paper did protect the Whatman paper. They concluded that it was due to volatile substances from the newsprint, but were unable to identify any of them with certainty. Unbuffered tissue did not have a significant effect under any conditions.
This paper is hard to understand and evaluate, because it sometimes omits from the tables or does not clearly identify such information as the aging conditions and the placement and identity of the samples for which test results are reported. (3B1.23)
"Changes in Paper Color due to Artificial Aging and the Effects of Washing on Color Removal," by Timothy Vitale and David Erhardt. In Preprints for the ICOM Committee for Conservation 10th triennial meeting, Washington, DC, 22-27 Aug. 1993. Janet Bridgland, ed. p. 507-515.
The color change of paper aged under various conditions of temperature and relative humidity is studied, and the effectiveness of washing for removing colored degradation products is assessed. The best single predictor of color change was found to be dew point. Samples with the greatest color change had the lowest percentage of color removed by washing. Samples aged under different conditions, but with similar color change, have different proportions of soluble colored material. Aging results indicate that dew point rather than relative humidity is the best predictor of chemical stability in storage--the lower the dewpoint, the better. (3B1.4)
"Analysis of Ancient Paper and Ink," by Vilia Grosso. In proceedings volume, Role of Chemistry in Archaeology: 1st International Colloquium, 15-18 Nov. 1991. M.C. Ganorkar and N. Rama Rao, eds. 1992. p. 67-75. Six analytical methods (SEM, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, GPC, XRD and laser-mass spectrometry) were used on several types of ancient paper in order to find methods of dating them. Results were encouraging. (From Abstract 30-887, AATA) (3B1.9)
"Colorants in Inks for Writing, Drawing and Marking," by Gerhard Pfingstag. IPH (International Paper History) v.4 #2, 1994, p. 24-29. Reprinted from Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, v.109, May/June 1993, p. 188-192. This article discusses the requirements for effective writing, drawing and marking inks, with useful generalizations on their composition and permanence, and identifies the major colorants in each type: Iron gall ink, permanent dyestuff inks, foundation pen inks, fiber-tip pen inks, inks for children (with heavy metal content limited by law in some countries); fineliner pen inks, rollerball inks, drawing inks, felt-tip pen inks and marker inks (four types). Colorants used in each of 12 modern inks are listed in an appendix by their CI number. (3B1.9)
Luis Nadeau's Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and Photomechanical Services has been reprinted as a one-volume set (472 pp.). It is selling for the same price as the first edition ($70), except to "students, individuals and libraries that do not have an office copier on their premises," who need to pay only $40. Contact Luis Nadeau, Box 7, Site 4, Fredericton, NB, Canada E3B 4X5 (Internet: nadeaul@ nbnet.nb.ca; fax 506/450-2718; Hamcall VE9LN). (3B1.9)
"A Closer Look at Iron Gall Ink Burn," by Robien van Gulik and N.E. Kersten-Pampiglione. Restaurator (Copenhagen) 15:3, 1994, p. 173-187. This is more than a literature review; it also reports the results of a survey of 26 leading conservation scientists and paper conservators in nine countries. Little agreement was found on the mechanism of iron gall ink burn, the best kind of deacidification, or the effect of deacidification on the ink. Needed research is outlined. The authors describe the methods they finally chose for treating drawings in the Teyler Museum in Haarlem, where both are employed. Further research is being done at the Central Research Laboratory in Amsterdam. (3B2.12)
"Polarized Light Microscopy in Conservation: A Personal Perspective," by Walter McCrone. Journal of the AIC 33 (1994), 101-114. The polarized light microscope (PLM) permits complete characterization and identification of a greater variety of substances than any other microscope. Since the mid-20th century, however, it has been upstaged though not superseded by the electron microscope and other high-technology instruments. McCrone used it to analyze the Shroud of Turin and the Vinland Map, showing the first to be a 14th-century painting and the second to be a 20th-century forgery. This champion of the PLM describes how it works, how to use it, and applications; he provides color photographs of typical fibers and crystals, a summary of the history of titanium white pigments, sources of supply and a bibliography. (3B2.2)
"The Applications of the Polarizing Microscope in Ceramics," by Albert B. Peck. Technology & Conservation, Winter 1992-93, p. 18-20 (reprinted in condensed form from the Sept. 1919 Journal of the American Ceramic Society). Despite the rapid technological advances that accompanied the First World War (which at that time, not knowing that there would be a second, they called "the recent war" or "the Great War"), the author says that it had often been easier and more satisfactory to use and develop old instruments along new lines. The polarizing light microscope was one of those old favorites. He describes its use in mineralogy. (3B2.2)
"Einfahrungen eines Einzelkämpfers mit dem Jenaer Papierspaltverfahren," by Johannes Sievers. Restauro 1/93, p. 20. This is a lighthearted but professional discussion (all in German) of paper splitting using enzymes.
Background: Paper splitting, a European technique, is like lamination on the inside of the sheet instead of the outside: strong supports are glued with a water-soluble adhesive to both sides of a sheet of deteriorated paper; the supports are pulled apart, splitting the paper through its middle layer, to within an inch or two along the end (to help with alignment later on). A thin, strong paper is glued between the two sides of the sheet, using an adhesive not soluble in water, and the outside supports are then loosened and removed in a water bath. Result: paper that can be safely handled, even if it originally had losses from bookworms, mold or iron-gall ink. The best part is that nothing obscures the writing or printing on the surface of the paper. (3B2.56)
Preservation Hinging, A Picture Framing Magazine Supplement, by Hugh Phibbs and Paula Volent. [February 1994] 28 pp. The Library of Congress Specifications for Mat/ Mounting Board, a small 8-page booklet, is tipped in. Most of the supplement is written by Hugh Phibbs, including the sections on adhesives, the hinge, art handling, hinge placement, beginning the hinging, and hinge drying. Paula Volent contributed a page on the hinging of oversized works of art on paper. About half of the supplement is taken up with ads. A separate section, on different paper and without ads, is saddle-stitched into the middle of the Supplement. It consists of a transcript of part of the discussion at the First Annual Forum on Conservation Framing Practices, sponsored by Tru Vue. Topics discussed are removal of adhesives, identifying and evaluating art, light and its effect on art, and the conservation framer's responsibility.
The significance of this supplement, the information it contains and its handy format for reference, is that it demonstrates how interest in conservation framing is growing in the framing world; how conservators are continuing to collaborate with framers; and how suppliers and publishers are taking initiatives to encourage the trend. (The August issue of the same magazine carries a report of its 1993/94 Preservation Conservation Framing Survey, which included questions like, "What percentage of your work is in preservation/conservation framing?" About half of those who replied said it was over 50%.) As the dialog continues, the technical sophistication of framers will increase. This will make it easier for them to talk to conservators and scientists, and the trend will continue. (3B2.59)
"Microbial Growth in Starch," by Linda Robertson. PIMA Magazine, June 1994, p. 74-75. Like conservators, papermakers have trouble keeping their starch from going bad. The author, a research microbiologist for Nalco Chemical Co., explains the cause and mechanism of starch degradation, and how to control it. Microbial growth in starch, she says, may manifest itself only as a drop in pH accompanied by a loss in viscosity from the enzyme that the bacteria secrete. They get into the starch/water slurry from the water, the remains of a previous batch, and/or the dry starch, which may be infected with spores of the bacteria. Cooking, even at temperatures as high as 150°F, can help germinate these spores. In fact, some species of Bacillus require high temperatures in order to grow. She recommends good housekeeping, clean water and prompt use of preservatives in the starch mixture--but she does not recommend any preservatives by name. (3B2.61)
Which Paper? A Guide to Choosing and Using Fine Papers for Artists, Craftspeople and Designers, by Silvie Turner. Updated Edition. Published by Design Books, 1994. Available for $24.95 from Lyons & Burford, Publishers, 31 West 21st St., New York, NY 10010. 144 pp. ISBN 1-55821-312-0.
This is reviewed favorably by Brett Charbeneau, Journeyman Printer of Colonial Williamsburg, in the April 1994 Guild of Book Workers Newsletter. As he says, it is well printed and imaginatively laid out and lists hundreds of papers by name, under the mills that make them, with their watermarks, characteristics and uses. The book is well illustrated, and it has an index. The main sections of the book are:
Qualities of Paper (e.g., sizing, acid free, grain)
Handmade Papers (e.g., handmade paper mills--made to order, handmade papers list, handmade papers of Japan, Thai papers)
Mouldmade Papers (e.g., Arches, Whatman)
Machinemade Papers (e.g., chemical pulp or "woodfree," machinemade permanent paper)
Paper in Practice (e.g., gluing papers, framing, care of works on paper)
Uses for Paper (e.g., pastel, calligraphy, intaglio, interleaving, recycled paper)
Appendices (e.g., history, sizes, terms, address list) (3B2.72)
"Papermaking" is a series of five videotapes by Tim Barrett, published by the University of Iowa Center for the Book. The reviewer in Paper Conservation News said that it differs from most available audiovisual materials on the subject in its distinct "how to" emphasis, covering all key steps in both Western and Japanese hand papermaking. The five tapes are:
Japanese Style Papermaking I: Simple Equipment and Techniques
Japanese Style Papermaking II: Traditional Equipment and Techniques (50 min.)
Japanese Style Papermaking III: Professional Equipment and Techniques (70 min.)
Western Papermaking I: Classroom Equipment and Techniques (55 min.)
Western Papermaking II: Professional Equipment and Techniques (55 min.)
Price: $60/tape or $250 for the set, from UICB Papermaking Video Tapes, 364 English Philosophy Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. (3B3.2)
History and Practice of Platinum Printing, by Luis Nadeau. 2nd ed. 192 pp. US$40 + $4 shipping from the author (fax 506/450-2718; for other modes of communication see the entry for his encyclopedia, above). The chapters on history and conservation have been expanded, and an original palladium/platinum print is tipped in. (3F1.3)
Preserving the Present: Toward Viable Electronic Records, by T.K. Bikson and E.J. Frinkling. Sdu Publishers, The Hague (1993). 169 pp., paper. $40 ($35 members) from Society of American Archivists, 600 S. Federal, Suite 504, Chicago, IL 60605 (312/922-0140, fax 347-1452). Product code 251.
This is a report of a five-country study, including the U.S., to identify the organizational, technical and archival problems of electronic and optical records. Recommendations are made to regulate the status of electronic documents, encourage technical standardization, develop records management procedures and improve the classification and retrieval of electronic data. (3G)
Nancy Schrock has a bibliography on conservation of architectural records that she updates periodically. It has been put on Conservation OnLine, the full-text database maintained by Walter Henry. It is in the Bibliographies area. (5B5)
The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, by Monona Rossol. 2nd ed., 1994. Allworth Press, 10 East 23rd St., New York, NY 10010 (800/247-6553; fax 212/777-8261). Includes information also relevant to conservation work. (6F2)
Overexposure: Health Hazards in Photography, by Susan D. Shaw and Monona Rossol. 2nd ed. 1983[?] Allworth Press, 10 East 23rd St., New York, NY 10010. This covers the hazards faced by photographers working in a variety of settings, including conservation. $18.95 per copy + $3 for shipping and handling; NY state residents must add sales tax. (6F2)
The March 1993 issue of ACTS FACTS carries evaluative reviews of three art hazards books: Artist Beware, by Michael McCann, Lyons & Burford, NY, 1993; Health Hazards for Photographers, by Siegfried and Wolfgang Rempel, Lyons & Burford, NY, 1993; and Making Art Safely, by Merle Spandorfer, D. Curtiss and J. Snyder, M.D., Van Nostrand Rheinhold, NY, 1993. (6F2)