The papers listed in Table 1 are those named by the 23 paper companies that returned the Abbey Publications questionnaire on permanent papers by August 15, 1991. The list is probably not comprehensive. Twelve of the companies that did not reply are Cross Pointe, Eastern, E.B. Eddy, Finch Pruyn, Parsons, Patriot, Potsdam, Riverside Simpson Pasadena, Warren, Byron Weston, and George Whiting. These are all 100% alkaline companies, or close to it.
We have made an effort to clarify any ambiguous questionnaire responses by making follow-up calls to the companies, with limited success. Some mills specified just which ASTM standards each of their listed papers met (e.g., D-3290), while others simply wrote "ASTM." We are responsible for some imprecision too, because we did not insist that respondents list only papers that corresponded exactly to the type covered by a standard. A strict interpretation would have meant omission of many papers that are indeed long-lived, because many fine papers produced today are not covered by any kind of permanence standard.
For more information on just what kind of printing ("ptg") or office ("ofc") papers these are, see Walden's Paper Catalog or one of the directories published by Grade Finders, Inc. Most printers and distributors have copies of these directories; ask them to let you use their copy.
Papers with recycled content have an R following their name. Content varies from 5% to 100% and may be preconsumer or postconsumer waste or both. Now that all 50 states have laws requiring the use of recycled paper for certain purposes, a purchaser may have to specify recycled content as well as permanence.
Summaries of the specifications for the ANSI and ASTM standards are given in Tables 2 and 3. The row for tear resistance specs gives three different measures for resistance to tearing: g (gram, really a measure of weight that often does double duty as a measure of force), gf (gram force, which is the same as the grain under standard gravity conditions on earth) and N (newton, a unit of force which has come into wider use recently; one mN or millinewton=9.81 gf). In future standards, we can expect to see this confusion cleared up. We will also see more frequent use of measures in the form of indexes, which will take into account the thickness of the paper and thus allow the use of one measure for all papers covered.
Complete standards are available from ASTM, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103 (215/299-5400) and (for ANSI Z39.48) from Transaction Publishers, Dept. NISO Standards, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (201/932-2280).
|Paper Grade||Standard||Main Use|
|All Recover Products (R)||D-3290||Ofc|
|AU Superior CB & CFB Products||D-3290||Ofc|
|All Sprint Freesheet CB & CFB Products||D-3290||Ofc|
|The following white CB Products: 10.2#, 15#, 17.5#, 20#, 26#, 30#||D-3290||Ofc|
|All Forms Bond||D-3290||Ofc|
|All Advanced Technology Papers||D-3290||ptg|
|Carnival Text & Cover1||ANSI||Ptg|
|Pageantry Text & Cover||ANSI||ptg|
|Mystique Laid Wrtg, Txt & Cvr||ANSI||Ofc, Ptg|
|Benefit Writing, Text & Cover (R)||ANSI||Ofc, Ptg|
|Weston Xerographic (R)||ALL||Ofc|
|Montague Writing||D3290 - II||Ofc|
|Notary Bond||D3290 -I||Ofc|
|Green River Bond||D3290 - II||Ofc|
|Recorder Bond||D3290 - II||Ofc|
|Reissue Bond (R)||D3290 - II||Ofc|
|Founder's Opake (27# to 60#)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Flecopake (28# to 60#)|
(lighter versions of Flecopake are still made acid)
|Glatfelter Hi-Brite Offset||ANSI||Ptg|
|Supple Opaque Offset||ANSI||Ptg|
|Supple Hi-Brite Offset||ANSI||Ptg|
|Spring Forge Offset||ANSI||Ptg|
|Thor Cote II (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Restore Cote (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Reference Opaque 84 (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Reference Opaque 81 (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Hammermill Savings DP (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|Hammermill Fore DP||ANSI||Ofc|
|Hammermill Tidal DP||ANSI||Ofc|
|Hammermill Offset Opaque||ANSI||Ptg|
|Hammermill Accent Opaque||ANSI||Ptg|
|Hammermill South Shore Offset||ANSI||Ptg|
|Hammermill Copy Plus||ANSI||Ofc|
|Hammermill Laser Print||ANSI||Ofc|
|Hammermill Copier SV4||ANSI||Ofc|
|Saving Offset (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Saving Opaque (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|51# Harmony (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|61# Papeterie (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|70# Mead Offset Opaque (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|80# Mead Offset Opaque (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|70# Moistrite Matte (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Alkaline File Folder||D-3301 - I||Ofc|
|Poseidon Perfect White||ANSI/ASTM||Ptg|
|Mohawk P/C (whites) (R)||ANSI/ASTM||Ptg|
|Mohawk P/C (colors) 4 (R)||ANSI/ASTM||Ptg|
|Mohawk P/C 100 (R)||ANSI/ASTM||Ptg|
|Papyrus Newton Falls|
|MultiArt Gloss & Silk||ANSI||Ptg|
|St. Lawrence Gloss (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Stora Matte (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|St. Lawrence Coated-one-side||ANSI||Ptg|
|Whitemost CIS Beer Label||ANSI||Ptg|
|Cream White Stora Matte (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Penn Text (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Clarion Book (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Highland Book (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Penn Plus (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Penn Supreme (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Clearfield Opaque (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Warm White Teton||ANSI/ASTM||Ptg|
|Starwhite Vicksburg Archiva||ANSI||Ptg|
|Satin Kote (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|Simpson Recycled Offset (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|Ward Brite-Hue (std clrs only) (R) ANSI Ptg Ward Forward Vellum Opaque (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Ward Lake Shore 25 (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|Ward Cimarron (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|American Eagle Envelope Wove (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|American Eagle Hi-D PC (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
|Clear Spring- Offset Vellum||ANSI||Ptg|
|Clear Spring Envelope Wove||ANSI||Ptg|
|ALL Forms Bond (R)||ANSI/D-3290||Ptg|
|All Xerographic (R)||ANSI/D-3458||Ptg|
|All Tablet (R)||ANSI||Ofc|
|All Offset (R)||ANSI||Ptg|
1. Champion International. The four deep shade Carnival Cover grades will remain acid sized until late in 1991.
2. Consolidated & Potlatch both make alkaline coated papers, for which there is no permanence standard at present.
3. Crane. A note on the 1990 survey says they have the capability to manufacture all bonds, ledgers, indexes and Save-A-Source recycled paper to meet the ASTM, ANSI, or other specifications as requested by customers.
4. Mohawk. Except midnight blue, navy blue, autumn red, berry, charcoal, forest green, cordovan, plum and ash gray.
5. All papers listed for Mohawk meet the specs in ASTM D-3290 (bond and ledger papers) and ASTM D-3458 (copy papers).
6. Papyrus Newton Falls. "Recycled fiber used on a special making basis."
7. Union Camp replied (in 1990), "At the present time all of our papers are manufactured to a level less than 7.0. Several trials have been conducted on alkaline sized paper and Union Camp's Fine Paper Division is presently making plans for a conversion to alkaline sizing in 1991."
Bond & Ledger Papers
Copies from Office Copy Machines
|pH||7.5 - 9.5||7.5 - 9.5||7.5 - 9.5||7.5 - 9.5|
|Fiber||New cotton or linen pulp, fully bleached wood, cotton or flax pulp or a mixture. No unbleached wood pulp or groundwood||Cotton or linen pulp, fully bleached wood pulp or a mixture. No unbleached pulp or groundwood||New cotton or linen pulp, bleached or unbleached wood pulp, rope, jute or mixture. No groundwood||Fully bleached Wood, cotton or flax or a mixture. No unbleached wood pulp or groundwood|
|Fold endurance||300, average both directions|
|Tear resistance||18 gf (177 mN) each direction||22-60 g for 13-24 lb. Bond; 60- 1 00 g for 24-36 lb. ledger||180 - 500 g for 8-14 mil Stock||30 gf|
pH - 7.5 min
Alkaline reserve - 2% calcium carbonate, min.
Fiber (paper stock) - No groundwood or unbleached pulp
Fold endurance - 30 double folds, average both directions
Tear resistance - 24-50 g for 30-60 lb. paper, MD, min.