J. K. Hutchins, "Water-Stained Cellulosics: A Literature Review." JAIC 22: 57-61, Spring 1983. Published research on waterstains or "tidelines" indicates clearly that these are not due to migration of degradation products, but to chemical modification of the cellulose at the wet/dry boundary, resulting in fluorescence and degradation of the cellulose. This can happen over the entire surface of an improperly dried sheet. The author speculates on the similarity between this phenomenon and foxing, which also fluoresces and degrades the paper.
Theodor N. Kleinert and L. N. Marraccini, "Aging and Colour Reversion of Bleached Pulps, Part 2. Influence of Air and Moisture." Svensk Papperstidning 66: 189-195, 1963. The authors suggest two distinct mechanisms to explain both peroxide formation and color reversion taking place during aging in presence and in absence of air; in both cases, unsaturated chromophoric groups are formed, and peroxide content of the pulps increases in the presence of moisture on aging. Peroxide formation and brightness reversion are not simple oxidation processes. Much of this paper concerns an investigation of the "brown line effect" (waterstains), to explain why they turned brown, gave off hydrogen peroxide, and grew weaker.
This is the paper that gave Chester Pope, a scientist at the National Bureau of Standards, the idea that the microspots being found on microfilm in the 1960s might be caused by hydrogen peroxide evolved by deteriorating boxes.
V. Daniels, "The Russell Effect--A Review of its Possible Uses in Conservation and the Scientific Examination of Materials." Studies in Conservation 29: 57-62, 1984. It was discovered around 1900 that some organic materials are capable of forming an image on very sensitive film, especially if they have recently been exposed to light; there is evidence that this is due to evolution of H2O2 as a result of autoxidation, Freshly abraded metals also give images, possibly by exoelectron emission as well as H2O2 production. There is much potential for application:
to monitor room temperature degradation of organic materials and metals, testing photographic enclosure materials, detect watermarks, determine the degradative effect of light on organic materials, test the efficiency of conservation methods, and authenticate documents.
Daniel Clement, "The Blistering of Paper During Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching." JAIC 23: 47-62, Fall 1983. An experiment is described which relates the amount of damage to certain degraded papers caused by the formation of gas-incurred delaminations during aqueous hydrogen peroxide bleaching to variations in treatment conditions. While some treatment modifications decreased the severity of the blistering, none prevented the problem entirely. (Author's abstract)
Paleographic Catalog. Compiled, written and edited by Lillian W. Pierce and Angela P. Dworkin. Portland: Western American Society for Italic Handwriting, 1983. A tour guide for people who want to study paleography in the original. Covers England, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Switzerland, and different regions of the U.S. The Society's address is WASIH, P0 Box 4621, Portland, OR 97208. Membership is $10. (There are plenty of details in the guidebook or catalog--all you need to know to make your visit a successful one.)
ASTM D4236, "Standard Practice for Labeling Art Materials for Chronic Health Hazards." New. Requires manufacturers to place the seal of the Art & Craft Materials Institute and a statement of conformance to the standard on their products, many of which are used in conservation. $8 per copy from ASTM Sales Services Dept., 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103 (215/299-5585). For more information, see the June 1984 American Artist.
Ivor Robinson. Introducing Bookbinding. Oxford Polytechnic Press (probably in 1984). Back in print again.
Basic Guidelines for Disaster Planning, prepared by Disaster Task Force Committee, Oklahoma Chapter of the Western Conservation Congress, 1981-1982. 15 pp. For information about the Chapter, contact the Archives and Records Division, Oklahoma Department of Libraries, 200 N.E. 18th, Oklahoma City, OK 73105, phone (405) 521-502.
Guidelines for Selecting a Conservator (flyer). American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 3545 Williamsburg Lane, NW, Washington, DC 20008. Oriented to museums. Omits the Institute of Paper Conservation as an information source, the Baltimore Area Conservation Group as a regional guild, and Columbia University's School of Library Service as a training center. The advice is general enough to serve for selecting a book or paper conservator, however. It has been needed for a long time.
"How to Select a Restorer." The Framer 7:8, June 1984. A shorter, more informal and "brotherly" piece of advice, oriented to framers who are looking for a paintings conservator. For instance: "You should not ask the restorer to improve upon the original technique or ask him to perform unwarranted retouching or falsification of the picture in any way."
A Disaster Plan for the American Antiquarian Society, by Richard Baker and others. 1983. 21 pp. Includes plans of the building with shut-off a and emergency supplies indicated and salvage priorities for collections and catalogs (specified on three pages in Appendix 5). Appears practical and thorough. The introduction says, "Of all the plans reviewed in preparing this one, the Basic Guidelines for Disaster Planning by the Oklahoma Chapter of the Western Conservation Congress was the most useful and is gratefully acknowledged." AAS is at 185 Salisbury St., Worcester, MA 01609.
Health and Safety Committees: A Good Way to Protect Workers. (OSHA 3035) 1979. OSHA Publication Distribution Office, U.S. Dept. of Labor, Room N-4101, Washington, DC 20210.
From Crafts Report:
Homemade Money, by Barbara Brabec. Betterway Publications, White Hall, VA 22987. 272 pp. $12.95 softcover.
Geared primarily toward women entrepreneurs who have ideas and ambitions, but lack management and marketing skills. The author also publishes the bimonthly National Home Business Report, at $18 a year. Both can be ordered from Barbara Brabec Productions, P0 Box 10423, Springfield, MO 65808. Reviewed in the July issue.
"Brain or Brawn--Be Careful When You're Hiring a Helper," by Leonard DuBoff. And "Tax Clinic: Don't Panic! Here's How You Handle a Tax Audit," by Liz Pryde. Both in the May issue.