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Subject: Text of ISO/CD 11108

Text of ISO/CD 11108

From: Rolf Dahlo <rolf.dahlo>
Date: Monday, April 11, 1994
Immediately after I had sent in a short note to Cons DistList, I
received email from Walter Henry asking for the text of CD 11108. I
assume that other readers of Cons DistList will want the same
information, but I feel a need to add a few words about the work of
making international standards and circulation of ISO-documents.

There are many directives for ISO-work, and the various national member
bodies of ISO-committees (the national standardization organizations)
will circulate ISO-documents according to their own rules and
established practices. All groups wanting to participate in
standardization work must do so through their country's national
standardization organization. International or broadly based regional
organizations working or interested in similar or related fields may
establish liaison with an ISO-committee. It is my experience that the
national member bodies are open for all relevant groups, but
international work of this kind must have directives that make it
possible to resolve the technical issues in a standardization process.
It is necessary for all interested parties to participate in
standardization work to influence the technical decisions made.

Being the chairman of ISO/TC 46/SC 10, it is my duty to act in a purely
international capacity, divesting myself of a national point of view, to
attempt to resolve any negative votes and to decide in the approval
stage on publication or alternative courses of action (ISO Directives,
Part 1, 1.6, 2.5, and 2.6). I may have my personal opinions, but I shall
accept that at the end of the day the sub-committee has reached its
conclusion. I shall defend the decisions made according to the
procedures for the technical work of ISO, and it is still my duty to
listen to new arguments, and sometimes to arguments used before, when
someone will want to change a standard (you will probably be aware of
some organizations making a case for changing the specification of
resistance to oxidation in ISO 9706). I thought it was necessary to
introduce the full text of CD 11108 by these words.

The national member bodies have already circulated the document ISO/TC
46/SC 10/N 77 according to national practices. I post the following
text, which I have keyboarded for your information (I apologize for any
unintended errors and the unmarked correction of minor, but obvious
typing errors in the paper document). I post an ASCII-text, and some
typographical details are lost compared with the paper document, but I
hope this text is better than a summary. All comments that I may receive
to my email address, I will read with great interest, and I may
circulate any comment that I receive. In the standardization process,
however, I shall act according to the procedures, and I have to act on
the official votes and appended comments from the national member
bodies. Comments from internal and external liaison members (f.ex.
ISO/TC 6/SC 2, CIDOC, ICA, IFLA or IPC) will also be studied carefully
by the sub-committee when the decision is taken to register a committee
draft as a draft International Standard (ISO/ DIS) on the basis of the
consensus principle. A revised committee draft may be circulated for a
new ballot if technical revisions can result in consensus.

I shall appreciate comments on the need to give more information in Cons
DistList about the work of ISO/TC 46/SC 10 Information and
documentation/Physical keeping of documents (Scope: Standardization of
requirements for documents and practices relating to documents, when the
documents are to be used in libraries, archives, and documentation
centres, and are to retain their characteristics. Excluded: -
photography and other media within the scope of TC 42, - micrographics
and optical memories within the scope of TC 171).


Date 1994-01-24 Reference number ISO/TC 46/SC 10/N 77 THIS DOCUMENT IS

ISO/TC 46/SC 10/N 77 CD 11108 Information and documentation - Archival
Papers - Requirements for permanence and durability

Introductory note:

WI 127 was proposed on 1990-02-19 and voted on for a New Work Item (doc.
TC 46/N1312) under the name of "Paper for durable documents". It was
accepted in the ballot and allocated to TC 46/SC 10/WG 1 on 1990-11-06.

WG 1, which includes experts nominated by TC 6/SC 2, has studied the
item and forwarded on 1993-11-09 a WD for CD ballot. The WD has been
slightly edited to be aligned with that of ISO 9706. During the course
of its study, the WG has requested that the name of the WI be changed to
the present.

The present CD is modeled on ISO 9706:1994 Information and documentation
- Paper for documents - Requirements for permanence. Clauses 4.4.2
through 4.4.4 are identical, and clauses 4.3 and 4.4.1 differ only in
that the present CD does not provide for papers of a lower grammage than
70 g/m2. The WG has carried out an interlaboratory study on the folding
endurance of a number of papers. This is the background of the limiting
values proposed in clause 4.5.

Comments from TC 6/SC 2, the experts of which have contributed so much
to the development of this CD, are especially welcome.

ISO/CD 11108 Information and documentation - Archival Papers -
Requirements for permanence and durability

1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the requirements for archival
papers. It is applicable to unprinted papers intended for documents and
publications required for permanent retention and use. For these
documents and publications paper of high permanence and durability is

NOTE 1 Archival paper is primarily required for documents and
publications intended to be kept for use permanently because of their
high historical, legal or other significant values.

2 Normative references

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in
this text, constitute provisions of this International Standard. At the
time of publication, the editions indicated are valid. All standards are
subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this
International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of
applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.
Members of IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid
International Standards.

    ISO 186:1985 Paper and board - Sampling to determine average quality

    ISO 187:1990 Paper, board and pulps - Standard atmosphere for
        conditioning and testing and procedure for monitoring the
        atmosphere and conditioning of samples

    ISO 302:1981 Pulps - Determination of Kappa number

    ISO 536:1976 Paper and board - Determination  of grammage

    ISO 1974:1990 Paper - Determination of tearing resistance (Elmendorf

    ISO 5626:1978 Paper - Determination of folding endurance

    ISO 6588:1981 Paper, board and pulps - Determination of pH of
        aqueous extract

    ISO 9706:1994 Information and documentation - Paper for documents -
        Requirements for permanence

    ISO 10716:- (To be published) Paper and board - Determination of
        alkali reserve

3 Definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard the following
definitions apply.

3.1 archival paper: Paper of high permanence and durability.

3.2 permanence: The ability to remain chemically and physically stable
over long periods of time.

3.3 durability: The ability to resist the effects of wear and tear in
performance situations.

3.4 watermark: A deliberately produced design or pattern in paper,
visible when viewed against a contrasting background, and caused by
local displacement of fibres:

    -   by means of a raised or recessed pattern of, for example a wire
        mould or cylinder mould machine,


    -   by means of a raised or recessed pattern on the surface of an
        open-ended cylinder (dandy roll) rotating in contact with the
        wet stock on the forming wire of the Fourdrinier machine.

4 Required characteristics

4.1 General

A sample of the lot under inspection shall be obtained as described in
ISO 186. By visual inspection the paper shall be free from obvious
defects, such as creases, large specks, holes and wrinkles.

4.2 Fibre composition

The paper shall be made principally from fibres of cotton, cotton
linters, hemp, flax or ramie, or mixtures thereof.

NOTE 2 If a minor fraction of fully bleached chemical pulp is used to
reach desirable performance, the amount shall be specified.

4.3 Grammage

The grammage, determined as described in ISO 536, should not be less
than 70 g/m2.

NOTE 3 No upper limit is given, but the ISO definition of paper excludes
material of grammage exceeding 225 g/m2.

4.4 Permanence

The paper shall meet the following requirements.

4.4.1 Strength properties

The tearing resistance in any direction (machine or cross) shall be at
least 350 mN. The samples shall be conditioned at 23 deg C and 50 %
relative humidity as described in ISO 187. The tear test shall be
performed as described in ISO 1974.

4.4.2 Alkali reserve

The paper shall have an amount of alkali reserve corresponding to at
least 0,4 mol of acid per kilogram, determined as specified in ISO

NOTE 4 When calcium carbonate is used to create the alkali reserve, the
requirement is met if the paper contains a minimum of 20 g/kg of CaCO3.

4.4.3 Resistance to oxidation

The paper shall have a kappa number of less than 5,0 when measured as
specified in ISO 302 with the modification given in the normative Annex
A to ISO 9706.

4.4.4 pH value of aqueous extract

The pH value of an aqueous extract prepared with cold water and
determined as specified in ISO 6588, shall be in the range from 7,5 to

NOTE 5 This test gives an average pH value of the paper. However, no
single layer should have a pH value below 7,5. To ensure this, the
manufacturer's warrant of the use of an alkaline process may be accepted
as indication that the paper meets this requirement.

4.5 Folding endurance

The paper shall have a folding endurance in any direction (machine or
cross) of at least 2,45 when determined with the Schopper instrument or
at least 2,18 when determined with the Lhomargy, the Koehler-Molin or
the MIT instrument. The determination and calculation shall be carried
out as specified in ISO 5626 and the conditioning atmosphere shall be 23
deg C and 50 % relative humidity.

When determining the folding endurance, make sure that the folding zone
in no case accommodates parts of a watermark.

NOTE 6 A folding endurance of 2,42 corresponds to a fold number of about
260. Folding endurance 2,18 corresponds to a fold number of 150. Observe
that the folding endurance is the mean of the logarithms (to the base
10) of each of the individual readings.

5 Report

The testing laboratory shall in its report include the following:

    a) precise identification of the paper lot tested;

    b) date and place of testing;

    c) the visual observations made when inspecting the sample;

    d) the grammage of the paper, determined as specified in ISO 536;

    e) the test results obtained when testing as specified in 4.4 and
    4.5, expressed as stated in the relevant ISO Standards;

    f) a statement that the paper meets or fails to meet the
    requirements of this International Standard. In the latter case, the
    specific reasons shall be stated.

                  Conservation DistList Instance 7:72
                  Distributed: Monday, April 11, 1994
                        Message Id: cdl-7-72-005
Received on Monday, 11 April, 1994

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