General Works Environment Storage, Transport, and Exhibition 509 Biological Control 511 Security and Disaster Preparedness 512 Health and Safety 514 Machine-Readable Records Audio and Video 515 Electronic 517 Photographic Materials 519 Reformatting and Reproduction Available Technologies 521 Imaging 522 Preservation Photocopying 522 Micrographics 523 Paper and Inks Characteristics 524 Standards and Legislation 527 Conservation Paper Strengthening and Deacidification 529 Treatments and Information 532 Bibliographies 534 Current Information Sources Publications 536 Electronic Bulletin Boards and Conferences 541 Databases 542
Editor's note: Every effort has been made to provide complete and accurate citations. The nature of the literature on this topic has made it difficult to provide complete information for all items. It is hoped users of this bibliography will find these citations useful for their work.
In 1990, the newly reorganized Society of American Archivists' Preservation Section surveyed its membership and found that 53 percent of the survey respondents relied on SAA as their primary source for preservation information and education. The implications of this finding prompted the Preservation Section's Education Committee to explore ways in which it could provide accurate and practical preservation information to the archives community in a timely fashion. This led to the development of the "Archives Preservation Resource Review."
The "Resource Review" is an annotated compilation of English-language publications and other resources on preservation of interest to the archives community. It focuses on materials produced during 1990, though older materials identified as particularly important or relevant are also included. We have limited these additional citations to the last five years because preservation is a constantly evolving field, and sources become rapidly outdated. References to materials predating 1986 may be found in topical bibliographies cited.
SAA's membership is composed of a variety of professionals, ranging from the archivist who works as the sole professional in a small repository to the conservator who is a member of the preservation staff of a large institution. We all share the common goal of preserving our holdings. This review can help each of us meet this goal by enabling us to approach the preservation of our holdings in a responsible and informed manner.
The review responds to the diversity of SAA's membership and contains citations that are introductory as well as technical in content. It also includes library and museum resources that are relevant to archives preservation. Though it should not be considered comprehensive, the review is broad in scope and offers readers an opportunity to increase their familiarity with current preservation literature. The presence of items within the review should not be deemed an endorsement of their content; an item's inclusion recognizes that it is a part of a body of literature that may be useful in making a preservation-related decision.
The following citations have been grouped by specialized subjects to facilitate use. In searching for information on a preservation topic, readers may need to consult more than one subject heading since many preservation citations overlap subject areas. For example, someone referencing "Micrographics" also might want to check other sections in "Reformatting and Reproduction," as well as "Photographic Materials" and "Environment: Storage, Transport, and Exhibition."
Under each specialized subject, we have marked two or three items with the symbol * to identify standard or especially significant items. The final section of the review cites noteworthy serial and occasional publications, electronic bulletin boards, and databases to help readers keep up with the archival preservation literature.
This review was prepared by Preservation Section Education Committee members Maria Holden (Chief Conservator, New York State Archives and Records Administration), Hilary A. Kaplan (Conservator, Georgia Department of Archives and History), and Kathy Ludwig (Conservator, Minnesota Historical Society) for SAA's Preservation Section. A number of SAA members offered support and helpful suggestions during the review's development. We would like to acknowledge specifically the assistance of the following individuals: Mitchell Hearns Bishop, for clarifying the world of databases; Walter Henry, for summarizing electronic bulletin boards; Christopher Ann Paton, for providing a number of critical entries on audio and video materials; Steven Puglia and Sarah Wagner, for expanding the photographic materials section; and Susan Swartzburg, for additional citations. Special thanks go to Richard J. Cox for his recommendations an;i encouragement.
The ultimate value of this review can be measured only by its usefulness to the archival community. Your comments and suggestions will help us in future efforts.Hilary A. Kaplan
Summarizes findings and recommendations of U.S. National Academy of Science committee to investigate options to preserve paper records. Recommended actions include copying to photographic film, electrostatic copying, and environmental control.
Report of the Planning Project Panel funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities to investigate graduate education for training archives conservators.
Examines the nature of cultural property and considers the preservation of information and artifacts within this context.
Introduction to archives preservation: stresses preventive care and maintenance of holdings, focusing on small to medium-size institutions.
Discusses the evolution of information media, differences between library and archives collections, and preservation challenges facing the archives community.
Assesses the problems of an undefined relationship between archivists and conservators.
Analyzes the longevity of archival recording media--including paper, photographic film, magnetic media, and optical disk--according to media properties, storage environment, and frequency of use. Includes discussion of existing media standards and reformatting in response to demand for access.
Offers assistance in the preparation and implementation of library and archival preservation policies.
Addresses basic conservation needs within a museum, providing methods for gathering, interpreting, and reporting information essential to successful collections-care policies and practices. Includes a client contact form; previsit questionnaire; collections assessment guidelines and checklist; and architectural assessment guidelines. Forms are designed to help information gathering during an on-site visit and to serve as references for compiling a final report.
Results of a nationwide study of archives preservation practices.
Provides an overview of current research under way in preservation. Topics include climate control, mold and insect control, disaster prevention and recovery, mass deacidification, and paper strengthening.
Tells of the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators' (NAGARA) Preservation Self-Study Project's production and testing of a successful expert system program, Guide and Resources for Archival Strategic Preservation Planning (GRASP), to assist archivists in developing comprehensive preservation programs in their repositories.
Describes the design and field testing of automated archives preservation planning system, Guide and Resources for Archival Strategic Preservation Planning (GRASP), developed by the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators.
Discusses archival preservation challenges and the development, design, and field testing of the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators' Guide and Resources for Archival Strategic Preservation Planning (GRASP).
Outlines a process and provides a rationale for preservation planning useful to archivists considering or engaged in preservation planning. Designed as a guide to assist libraries in assessing their preservation needs, setting preservation priorities, formulating a preservation plan, and implementing a comprehensive preservation program. Includes sections that provide a conceptual framework for the planning process and covers modules on environmental conditions, physical condition of collections, organization, disaster control, preservation resources, staff and user education, and interinstitutional cooperation.
Reports on a program in Cambodia to preserve books and manuscripts neglected or destroyed by decades of war. 506
Reviews the nature of paper and parchment and the media applied to these supports. Also provides storage and environmental recommendations.
Elucidates steps to establish a systematic holdings maintenance program aimed at improving the storage environment for records institutionwide.
Illustrates the preservation problems facing large and small repositories. Available in slide tape or video format and appropriate for lay audiences.
Lists preservation terms agreed upon by the Library Vendors Task Force of the American Library Association's Preservation of Library Materials Section.
Summarizes National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) preservation research from 1934 to the present. Describes NARA's current preservation program, emphasizing quality control and systems for handling preservation problems.
Stresses the need for collaboration between conservator and scientist, a model presently in use at the Canadian Conservation Institute.
Provides context for understanding and creating an effective preservation program. Excellent introduction to archives preservation
Reviews the current status of archives preservation through the examination of existing and potential educational opportunities, the role of archives preservation personnel, and the distinction between archives and library preservation.
Presents guidelines for developing and implementing an institutional preservation program, with or without in-house conservation staff.
Summarizes the commission-sponsored Preservation Education Institute, August 24, 1990. which was designed to bring archivists, library administrators, educators, network staff, and preservation personnel together to explore the possibilities of enhancing preservation's place in the library school curricula.
Notes "inherent difficulties and ambiguities" with the use of these terms, quoting standard definitions.
Reviews the effectiveness of the Preservation Management Institute, a training program held in the summer of 1987, developed for archives managers by the Society of American Archivists and the Northeast Document Conservation Center.
Consists of three coordinated tools: a computer-assisted self-study based on an expert system; a manual offering specific planning strategies; and a resource compendium with more than six hundred pages of readings and citations to aid in developing and guiding a preservation program. GRASP was created to help archives systematically address their preservation needs.
Identifies the preservation problems facing state archives and outlines steps to be taken to advance the preservation of holdings in these institutions. Important study conducted by Howard Lowell.
Examines various methods for preserving paper-based records at the National Archives. Looks at environmental criteria, paper, photographic film, magnetic recording media, and optical discs. Offers recommendations for mass treatment, preservation photocopying, preliminary preservation actions, and a preservation strategy. Numerous references.
Focuses on the copyright considerations for published materials when reproduction is required to retain information for preservation purposes.
Considers the preservation of books and documents in original format. Outlines a strategy that encompasses a justification for resources, methodologies for selection, and a range of preservation technologies.
Investigates the concept of permanence and contemplates its meaning. Provocative article that considers that the archives of the future may be unconcerned with physically maintaining materials "permanently. "
Helps in identifying and negotiating with competent professionals for conservation treatments.
Provides an overview of preservation concerns, emphasizing the importance of preservation and its relationships to all other archival functions.
Considers information needed to make an intelligent conservation decision and how that information may be obtained.
Summarizes problems and recommends practical solutions to individuals interested in preserving papers produced in the last two hundred years.
Describes a program that uses a range of basic preservation activities to prolong the useful life of records through appropriate housing and storage.
Provides context as well as practical techniques for carrying out holdings maintenance activities.
Outlines principles of archival preservation and provides summaries of treatment options and relevant planning considerations. This study is aimed at archivists responsible for planning and managing preservation services in "developing countries," particularly in tropical areas.
Compares these two publications and raises questions about targeting one's audience and the ways in which information or implementation of recommendations can be most effective in educating the public about preservation.
Reflects on the development of the conservation field, the role of the conservator, and the type of training needed by curators.
Discusses the evolution of the concept of phased preservation. Describes phased preservation at the Library of Congress and the point system for allocating time and resources.
Relates the development and implementation of the National Archives of Canada conservation policy, which integrates conservation with all other archival functions.
Assists archivists in the creation, maintenance, use, and disposition of maps, aerial photographs, and architectural and engineering drawings.
Summarizes a talk on plastics given at the November Guild meeting.
Discusses effects of environment on records, informal and formal environmental standards, and theoretical and practical considerations in providing an optimum environment.
Presents a method for testing corrosiveness of atmospheres containing organic acids.
Addresses logistics for borrowers of special collections materials, prepared by an American Library Association Rare Books and Manuscript Section ad hoc committee.
Reviews preservation problems affecting libraries, emphasizing maintenance of the building and physical environment.
Explains procedures and project costs for shrink-wrapping rare and fragile materials for safe handling during a move.
Examines the relationship between ozone inside and outside of an archives building in a heavily polluted location. Concludes that relative humidity does not appear to affect ozone concentrations.
Offers useful environmental monitoring information. This manual is distributed by the Preservation Outreach Program of the Minnesota Historical Society in conjunction with monitoring equipment. (Equipment available to Minnesota institutions only.)
Presents guidelines for museum environments applicable to the storage of archives materials.
Comments on the effects of decreased relative humidity (RH) as it relates to the long-term storage environment for paper artifacts. Notes factors influencing appropriate RH. Sources for recommended RH storage levels are listed, demonstrating a lack of consensus.
Discusses exhibition illumination limits in terms of an annual cumulative measurement. Suggestions are made for humidity and gaseous pollution control for items in transit.
Surveys ten institutions recently involved in a move. Covers premove planning, logistics of the move, typical problems encountered, and suggestions for streamlining operations.
Recommends appropriate climate control for the protection of collections in museums. Emphasizes the need for a stable environment and a monitoring program.
Articulates the varied concerns of archivists, building engineers, conservation scientists, conservators, and librarians in achieving a beneficial environment for materials.
Examines degradation products in newsprint and rag papers in gas reactions with and without pollutants. Tentatively identifies six organic acids as degradation products that may be transferred from one paper to another.
Considers the nature of pollutants and their influence on the degradation of archival materials. Includes strategies for dealing with pollutants. Numerous references.
Analyzes the components of a program to study archival containers and microenvironments. Prepared for the National Archives, this report considers that documents housed in containers and not directly exposed to the ambient environment experience a microenvironment that is potentially less damaging than the macroenvironment of the storage area.
Provides basic information and specifications for construction and use of cold storage vaults for photographs. Emphasizes the need for temperature staging to prevent condensation on photographs.
Emphasizes the dangers inherent in exhibiting photographs and suggests some alternatives to displaying originals.
Describes a method to graph the relationship of environmental factors to the permanence of hygroscopic materials, such as paper. Using the "isoperm diagram method," the longevity of paper records in a given environment can be predicted.
Describes technique to monitor density changes in photographic materials before and after exhibition. Also considers other condition changes that may occur with exhibited photographs.
Compares fluorescent light sources and ways in which to reduce the risk of light damage.
Summarizes major factors influencing the preservation of archival holdings. Provides general guidelines for building design and for the protection of records against specific hazards.
Provides basic information on environmental control. Classic text on the museum environment, applicable to all repositories.
Article explores solutions for good lighting and the preservation of exhibited artifacts.
Presents a case study of an infestation and provides helpful information for recovery actions, specifically, blast freezing.
Reports favorable results from the use of microwave radiation for destroying insects. This technique was not successful for destroying microorganisms, and its effects on the materials on a molecular level have not as yet been determined.
Describes the use of an inert nontoxic gas, argon, in an airtight container to kill insects and insect eggs in books. Mechanism of this process is explained as "suffocation in an inert gas." More testing is needed to determine exposure time and effectiveness of this procedure on bacteria and mold.
Demonstrates an insect pest control approach that does not use fumigation. Emphasis is on prevention of infestation through monitoring and environmental control. Includes guidelines to implement a program.
Guides archivists in the prevention and basic treatment of mold. Emphasis is placed on mold prevention. Numerous citations.
Explains mold and ways in which it can be treated.
Discusses the combination of control techniques, such as continual inspection, external building precautions, traps, chemicals, moisture control, cleanliness, etc., used to prevent pest problems in the repository.
Examines the major pests affecting libraries and archives, the damage done to holdings, techniques for pest prevention and control, and the development and implementation of an integrated pest management program.
Investigates the elimination of insects by displacing oxygen with an inert gas, nitrogen, as an alternative control method.
Guides curatorial personnel in controlling pests in the repository: examines institutional policies and compliance with governmental regulations; provides identifying characteristics of pests; and considers treatments. Contains a partially annotated bibliography.
Highlights actions following the discovery of a theft.
Reviews the recovery of archival materials following a disaster. Barton coauthored An Ounce of Prevention.
Provides a practical guide to disaster preparedness, covering prevention, protection, and recovery. Bibliography by Toby Murray. Compiler's note: For an updated version of Murray's bibliography, see "Bibliographies" section in this review.
Considers methods of monitoring researcher access to facilities and documents. A theft in the 1960s prompted the National Archives to rethink its approach and general philosophy toward security.
Summarizes the behavior and vulnerability of wet paper and its stabilization by freezing. Discusses how vacuum chambers dry. Examines case studies in which water-damaged materials were salvaged.
Discusses fire tests conducted on the compact movable shelving for the National Archives and Records Administration's new facility in College Park, Maryland ("Archives 11"). The tests were performed by Underwriters Laboratory.
Presents the final version (pending approval by the American Library Association Standards Committee) of guidelines for security. Includes useful addresses for alerting the community to thefts of holdings. Prepared by the Rare Books and Manuscripts Security Committee for the American Library Association.
Suggests preventive actions to deter theft as well as a checklist of actions to be taken once a theft has occurred. Prepared by the Rare Books and Manuscripts Security Committee for the American Library Association.
Covers the history of library fires and policies of fire prevention, stack construction and the spread of fire, elements of a fire protection plan in repository construction, and types of automatic suppression systems.
Pinpoints problems that arise from construction and that result in fire dangers, water hazards, security lapses, and collection damage.
Offers guidance to assist those writing a disaster plan, with contributions on disaster planning and recovery by Sally Buchanan. Includes Peter Waters's article on salvaging water-damaged materials.
Addresses security issues in English repositories: considers the overall protection of the repository and security in the search room; well-being of a county records office; and the potential identification of thieves, based on their behavior in the reading room.
Describes recovery efforts following the disastrous 1988 fire at the Academy of Sciences Library in Leningrad.
Examines some of the policies and procedures that can be implemented to minimize the possibility of theft or the willful damage to materials by researchers or staff.
Provides excellent guidelines for salvaging a variety of water-damaged materials.
Offers practical guidelines toward developing and implementing a disaster plan.
Observes the trends and breaches in special collections security since 1957; theft has become an acute problem.
Creates an awareness of potential health risks in handling books and documents. Suggestions are made for safe use of materials.
Cites the National Toxicology Program published report (NTP Technical Report no. 342) firmly establishing the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of diochlorvos, a chemical found in pest control products and often used in collection areas and display cases. Common names include DDVP and Vapona (pest strips). Discourages the use of dichlorvos because no safe level of exposure to carcinogens has been established.
Explains how a buildup of gases and particulates result from a variety of sources within a building. Discusses legislation proposed by Congress for further investigation into health implications of indoor air.
Specifies toxic agents commonly found in conservation laboratories and guidelines for developing an effective health and safety program to protect conservation staff.
Responds to the increasing number of requests for information about indoor air quality and "sick building syndrome." Includes congressional testimony, NIOSH guidelines for conducting investigations article on evaluating building ventilation systems, and list of publications on indoor air quality.
Offers useful information for conservators dealing with dyes, pigments, inks, plastics, leather, and chemicals.
Explains that pollutants, such as ozone, generated by lasers can cause health problems.
Looks at the effects poorly designed or inadequately sized HVAC systems can have on worker health and productivity. Specific employee health complaints may be symptomatic of "sick building syndrome."
Finds no broadly recognized standards relating to audio preservation. Includes survey findings, methodology, raw data, and results of related research projects. A complex but very useful source. Glossary and extensive bibliography.
Reports on research into deterioration of magnetic tape with a polyester urethane binder system. Research indicates that binder failure can be avoided by maintenance of proper storage environment.
Focuses on the key issues of standards for education and training of archivists specializing in audiovisual materials.
Summarizes the ongoing program at the National Archives of Canada to preserve information in audiovisual records through proper storage, conversion, and copying. Emphasizes the practical issues associated with the program operation.
Describes a method used to clean oral history audiotapes for re-recording following damage by the mud, sand, and salt water of Hurricane Hugo.
Presents guidelines to assist staff responsible for creation, maintenance, use, and disposition of audiovisual records. Appendixes include sample inventory forms and federal regulations relating to audiovisual materials.
Tells how oxide shedding, attributed to binder breakdown, afflicts magnetic tapes produced from the late 1960s to the early 1980s.
Provides a brief history of audiotape, videotape, and computer tape recording. Discusses deterioration of software and expresses concerns over availability of appropriate hardware.
Describes various types of sound recordings found in a large New York Public Library collection, along with information on setting priorities for preservation work, cleaning the recordings, re-recording, cataloging, and the use of the collection.
Notes how Agfa research labs in Munich and the United States have found a reliable way to rejuvenate deteriorated tapes long enough to transfer them to a digital master. Agfa will perform this service for record companies and archivists of broadcasting organizations.
Provides reports, descriptions, and summaries relating to film and video preservation.
Addresses issues relating to the preservation of modern audiovisual media. Anthology of excellent papers on film, video, and sound recordings.
Discusses the status of sound recording Archives Preservation in archives and recommends actions to improve their management, such as developing re-recording standards, establishing national or regional recording facilities, and improving appraisal strategies.
Points out potential problems in using the new digital technology RDAT (Rotary Digital Audio Tape) format for the audio preservation project Levitt describes at the Library of Congress. Roosa outlines the goals of archival audio preservation and why the analog format is currently preferred to digital. Response by Levitt follows Roosa's article.
Highlights a syndrome that afflicts motion picture films of a cellulose triacetate base that may also affect acetate-based audiotapes. Recommends procedures for examining audiotapes, handling damaged tapes, and preventing future damage.
Describes conditions that created a mold outbreak in the Radio Archives of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, along with remedies selected to solve the problem and lean affected tapes.
Considers strategies for preserving sound records and explains inherent problems of the media. Choice of preservation method and equipment are critical. Factors such as compatibility, standardization, quality, and permanence are also discussed.
Presents accurate, reliable information and advice on management of sound archives.
Analyzes the management of electronic records in organizations; full of recommendations for how records managers and archivists can administer such records. Contains numerous references to the "preservation" of electronic records, primarily defined as the provision of access and functionality of such records through internal institutional policies and practices and the technical standards-setting arena. Very important report that should be read by all concerned with the preservation of archival records.
Outlines the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) planned approach for developing and implementing standards for electronic records, based heavily on the 1989 National Institute of Standards and Technology study. NARA expects to take on a number of activities to enhance the creation and use of standards, including the evaluation of software products for database and document transfer and the identification of requirements for managing the life cycle of electronic records.
Cites problems raised by electronic records in relation to aspects of traditional archival theory and practice.
Examines the problems of electronic storage and proposes that ample consideration be given to the management, retention, and selective preservation of machine-readable records. Because proper indexing or descriptive information is needed to access electronic records for retrieval and use, this report looks at the internal management requirements and policies needed for the National Archives and Records Administration to avoid information loss. Rapid changes in technology will necessitate continuous monitoring and modifications in methods of storing, maintaining, and retrieving electronic holdings.
Emphasizes a lack of standards and the obsolescence of equipment as stumbling blocks for preserving machine-readable records.
Covers the three-day conference, which included representatives from government and the private sector, to develop recommendations for the management of electronic records in the federal government. Dominant themes include the need for records managers to participate in the life cycle of automated information systems and the need to improve communication among disciplines involved in electronic records management.
Looks at pertinent issues in electronic recordkeeping for the archival community. Offers a summary of problematic aspects of preservation of and access to electronic media. Includes suggestions for a research agenda and project priorities for the future. Interest in electronic records as a major category for National Historical Publications and Records Commission funding prompted the development of this paper.
Provides guidance on the management of electronic records, emphasizing proper methods for identifying and handling records that may be of enduring value.
Highlights the need for standardized formats along with compatible equipment capable of reading records stored for future information retrieval. Recommends reevaluating and revising preservation policies and embracing long-range planning to ensure the long-term availability of electronic records.
Considers the implications of using the 3480 cartridge as a predominant secondary data storage device in place of reel-to-reel computer tapes. Recommendations for use were delayed because more information was needed about availability of the 3480 for mid-range systems and about the cartridge's increased storage capacity. Problems of chromium dioxide instability appear to have been resolved.
Reviews photographic film supports (paper, cellulose nitrate, cellulose esters, polyester, and polycarbonate), paying particular attention to their properties.
Summarizes information on motion picture nitrate film: flammability, health problems, storage, disposal, and fire protection.
Reviews the permanence of photographs, electrostatically produced materials, and electronically stored images. Emphasis is on photographic images. Though generally technical, sections on preservation and restoration will be useful to the practicing archivist. Extensive references.
Compares various negative-duplication options for maximum image retention.
Alerts caretakers of film collections to the chemical instability of cellulose acetate safety film. Important report.
Considers the problems and issues of photographic preservation. Discusses the role of the photographic conservator.
Provides an overview of the properties of historic and contemporary color photographic materials, indicating how such factors as storage environment, processing procedures, and inherent properties influence stability.
Distinguishes among reproduction technologies. Reference tool that contains an exhaustive listing of historical and modern, rare and common photographic and photomechanical processes.
Includes relevant chapters on the history, technology, and stability of photographic materials.
Considers options for duplicating photographic negatives.
Reviews the relative permanence of cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetates, and polyester photographic films. Discusses history, materials, and standards.
Identifies photographic processes and provides guidance to caretakers for preserving photographic materials. Standard text.
Discusses the deterioration mechanisms of black-and-white photographs and microfilm and describes research conducted at the Image Permanence Institute into protecting microfilm images from oxidative attack through sulfiding. Includes information regarding toner treatments for maximizing the image stability of black-and-white photographic images.
Alerts the reader to the potentially harmful effect storage enclosure components can have on photographs. Summarizes the American National Standards Institute's Standard IT 9.2 for photographic enclosures, discusses an improved "Photographic Activity Test," and provides practical guidelines for choosing appropriate photographic enclosures.
Assists caretakers in the preservation of these early photographs, which dominated commercial photography from 1839 through the 1850s.
Discusses image stability of modern, commercially available color photographic products.
Compares advantages and disadvantages of electronic document imaging and micrographics. Lack of standards, legal inadmissibility, and uncertain life expectancy are concerns regarding the use of WORM (write once, read many) for permanent records. New flexible systems combine benefits of both technologies--economy of micrographics storage and speed and convenience of electronic imaging for retrieval.
Summarizes the strengths and weakness of paper, microfilm, and optical disc, centering on pertinent issues for the records manager.
Examines the interrelationship and future of micrographics and electronic imaging in a research library setting.
Reports on the eighth meeting of the International Organization of Standardization's Technical Committee 171, Micrographics and Optical Memories for Document and Image Recording, Storage, and Use.
Proposes the use of computer image processing as an alternative to filming when microfilm has not been wholly successful in capturing all images from photostatic originals. Once captured, images can be stored and reproduced on magnetic tape, optical disc, microfilm, or paper.
Examines the feasibility of deacidification, microfilm, digital imagery, and ASCII (nonimage format) as techniques available for book preservation. Current costs and technology still favor film.
Presents a glossary designed for understanding technological issues.
Provides a thorough comparison of micrographic and optical disc technologies for information and storage retrieval.
Covers basics of micrographic technology and related applications. Standard text.
Emphasizes that electronic imaging is not limited to optical disc and that imaging supports interactive systems.
Describes the National Archives and Records Administration's program implemented to monitor the condition of the charters of freedom through periodic image analysis using a CCD camera and image-processing system.
Outlines methodology for implementing optical systems in a records management environment.
Reports on the National Archives and Records Administration's ODISS pilot project to digitally capture images on paper and microfilm and to store them on optical disc.
Examines standards issues from the "imaging customer's perspective."
Reviews optical recording, including principles and issues of information access and system obsolescence. Provides a good comparison between optical and magnetic recording.
Describes a simple "peel test" to determine if a photocopier is making acceptably stable copies by properly fusing toner to paper.
Explains how electrostatic photocopiers can be a safe and effective preservation tool when properly used. Discusses stability of copies generated by both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic copiers.
Compares four photocopy machines suitable for Photocopying bound volumes.
Offers a model "fill-in-the-blank" letter useful for initiating customer/vendor communication. This model can be used as a first step in the contract-writing process, in informal letters of agreement, or as an aid for more detailed letters.
Reviews the history of micrographics with an emphasis on research libraries. Contains numerous references.
Traces the history and use of microfilm in libraries, drawing parallels between the expectations and impact of film and electronic media.
Offers examples of issues that need to be resolved by collection custodians working with commercial microform publishers.
Discusses selection of records for preservation in an archival context. Emphasizes the need to incorporate preservation considerations into all phases of archives administration.
Suggests methods for prioritizing microfilm decision-making activities for document preservation. Informational content and projected use figure as primary factors in selection procedures.
Considers the advantages of cooperative microfilming projects, along with planning an effective microfilming program.
Provides insights into preservation microfilming. Standard work.
Examines the microfilming component of the National Endowment for the Humanities funded U.S. Newspaper Program, begun in 1982 and set to conclude in 1997.
Reviews the factors affecting the permanence of microforms and discusses technical considerations relating to the purchase, processing, management, protection, and control of a microform collection.
Considers why 16mm microfilm has almost entirely replaced 35mm microfilm for security films in the Danish National Archives. Advantages include economy--less expensive camera equipment and reader-printers, better film quality, and simpler microcard fabrication.
Assists archivists in micrographics and copy production for the reproduction of documents.
Evaluates five vendors that meet the American National Standards Institute's archival production standards for cost, responsiveness, experience in filming bound volumes, turnaround time, meeting deadlines, shipping, and communication. Concludes that an initial "shake-down" period with any vendor is important to create a good working relationship.
Provides a good introduction and overview of principal issues of microfilming. Six papers.
Describes the system for filming and preserving cartographic materials at the preserving cartographic materials at the National Archives of Canada.
Summarizes efforts to investigate and resolve problems of redox blemishes found on microfilm at the Illinois State Archives. James Reilly, director of the Image Permanence Institute, comments on this article in a letter to the editor in Inform 4 (October 1990).
Looks at the use of step-and-repeat microfiche for preservation, archival, and micropublishing purposes.
Compares precipitated calcium carbonate fillers with ground calcium carbonate. Aspects of paper strength, brightness, and flexibility as well as problems of recycling and sizing systems were discussed by participants from chemical and paper companies.
Reviews the mechanical and strength properties of paper, which reflect the intrinsic chemistry, morphology, and structure of paper. Strength may be used as an indicator of paper permanence, a measure of the chemical stability of paper.
Locates fine papers produced in the United States by type and name. Indications of alkalinity, bulk, brightness, opacity, and distributor are included. Useful reference tool. Updated annually.
Compares similarities and differences in the way industry and conservation approach paper science, evaluating how industrial testing may be used or modified for conservation. This paper looks at accelerated aging conditions and what they may suggest about degradation reactions and the influence of environmental conditions on paper preservation.
Defines alkylketene dimers (AQUAPEL) and polyamide-epichlorohydrin resins (KYMENE 577). A discussion follows as to how William Barrow used this wet-strength resin and sizing to develop permanent-quality paper.
Discusses problems of recycled paper: strength, permanence, and environmental Issues.
Considers the advantages and problems of the paper medium for archival applications as well as alternative solutions.
Places Glatfelter's switch from acid to alkaline papermaking in historical context.
Discusses ink components that affect lightfastness.
Points to the cooperative association of degradation processes during aging and reflects on the usefulness of accelerated aging tests in light of this condition.
Enumerates changes that occur in paper upon aging and focuses on loss of folding endurance, which is highly correlated with loss in fiber strength, primarily effected by hydrolysis.
Organizes papers from the 1988 TAPPI Paper Preservation Symposium into five categories: Congressional Voices, Preservation Concerns, Testing and Monitoring of Paper Aging, Alkaline Papers, and Book Preservation Technologies. (Articles of particular interest to archivists have been individually abstracted and appear under their appropriate category in this review.)
Lists companies that make alkaline recycled copy (xerographic or laser) paper. Recycled has been defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as paper that contains one or all of the following: cotton linters, trimmings from printing, and post-consumer waste.
Discusses alternatives to elemental chlorine used in the bleaching process by mills in Europe, North America, and the former Soviet Union.
Traces the development of alkaline papermaking and examines permanent characteristics of such papermaking and the pressure exerted on paper manufacturers to convert from acidic to alkaline papermaking.
Observes how fax copies adversely reacted to a fumigant. (The paper's background turned black.)
Summarizes survey results when Abbey Publications surveyed sixty-six U.S. paper companies making alkaline paper. Notes compliance with permanence standards and inclusion of pre- and postconsumer waste.
States that this research quantifies the loss of paper strength and brightness due to gamma radiation of 2M, 4M, 6M, 8M, 12M, and 16M rad. Gamma radiation has been used for disinfestation of archival materials.
Reports on Abbey Publications' survey of seven available pH pens to evaluate their usefulness for reading paper pH. Test method and results are included, along with comparison charts of collected data. Manufacturer's color guides were found to be unreliable. Recommends that pens first be tested on papers of known pH levels, such as buffered papers, which could serve as an interpretive color chart for the future.
Describes a project to determine the relationship between air pollutants and the rate of deterioration of paper and other cellulose-containing materials.
Results of testing sixty-nine pens for resistance to light, water, and chemical solvents.
Explores yellowing of bleached pulps as they age. Carbonyl groups are considered the main cause of yellowing with age. Other factors include temperature, humidity, and high-energy radiation from the environment and outer space.
Looks at the causes of paper deterioration and investigates methods of preserving it. Good summary.
Summarizes the problems of acidic paper and outlines six areas in which alkaline papermaking offers improvements to the papermaking process.
Reviews degradation mechanisms and environmental factors that influence the aging of paper and examines destructive and nondestructive test methods as possible means for monitoring the state and progress of aging.
Discusses current industry usage of alum in alkaline papermaking systems.
Reports on the organizations involved in establishing standards and test methods for paper.
Highlights the first European standard for permanent paper; the Austrian standard for uncoated paper and board is based on American National Standard Institute's standard A 39.48-1984 "Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials."
Includes the preservation of library and archival materials as the first of six key study areas requiring NISO's (National Information Standards Organization) special attention for future planning activities.
Provides information on legislation affecting permanent and recycled papers on the state and national levels.
Tells how Congress directed the Government Printing Office (GPO) to develop a plan to identify the extent, source, and types of archival printing material produced inhouse and acquired commercially by the GPO or other agencies. The task force requests phasing in 10 percent alkaline paper annually for congressional publications, 5 percent for executive branch materials.
Discusses methods to be used for round-robin testing related to paper permanence. The standards under consideration for revision are accelerated aging conditions, fiber strength, pH, percentage of calcium carbonate, and maximum allowable lignin content.
Provides update on the American National Standards Institute/National Information Standards Organization standard for permanent paper for library and archival use, Z39.48, which is being revised to cover both coated and uncoated paper. The revised standard has some changes relative to method of pH determination, maximum allowable lignin content, and replacement of tear resistance with tear index. Excerpts from issues related to the revision are included.
Presents text of Public Law 101-423, signed 12 October 1990 by President George Bush, minus marginal notes and legislative history.
Furnishes text from six states (Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Indiana, North Carolina, and Virginia) that have passed laws requiring the use of alkaline or permanent paper for books and/or records. Texts demonstrate how framers of existing laws dealt with the enforcement of technical issues.
Supports H.J. Resolution 226 to establish a policy on permanent paper. The National Institute for Conservation believes that permanent-quality papers will save millions of dollars that would eventually be needed to deacidify or transfer information on acid paper.
Compiles publications used to promote the case for alkaline paper use. These materials are prefaced by a question-and-answer overview outlining the problems resulting from the use of acidic paper.
Describes the various papers used by the U.S. Government Printing Office and how Archives Preservation and why different types of papers are required for specific uses. This article also articulates those restraints perceived by the GPO that inhibit the promotion of alkaline paper for government documents.
Surveys national archives worldwide, revealing paper permanence standards for each country surveyed.
Presents the text of the report accompanying the joint resolution establishing a national policy on permanent paper.
Cites the role alkaline papers have played thus far in government printing and use.
States problems and issues involved in promoting permanent paper; a history of the development of standards for production and use of permanent durable paper.
Describes the mass preservation of newspapers at the Austrian National Library. This technique includes the deacidification, restrengthening, and cleaning of embrittled papers.
Summarizes 1989 testing results and covers set-up procedures, production results, administrative concerns and problems, and questions and observations about the deacidification agent. Version of a lengthier in-house report.
Looks at the effectiveness of some commercial nonaqueous deacidification methods and self-prepared aqueous buffering baths, by analyzing treated papers. Presents method for enriching water with alkaline earth ions using dolomite.
Offers promising results for paper strengthening based on graft copolymerization techniques initiated by low-intensity gamma radiation.
Reports on research at the British Library into strengthening paper by impregnating it with polymers. Discusses mass treatment by chemical means as an alternative to reformatting.
Concludes that papers absorbing greater amounts of alkaline salts as a result of deacidification may also absorb more acidic pollutants than expected. Certain paper types may also suffer greater deterioration if deacidified than if left untreated.
Produces results of a feasibility study based on two surveys for a deacidification center in the Toronto area. Various deacidification processes are assessed. Covers a number of issues to be addressed when considering a mass deacidification program.
Describes the mass deacidification system used in Canada.
Describes the BPA deacidification process.
Highlights the parylene process, which may have useful preservation applications despite its irreversible nature.
Focuses on the parylene process and its paper strengthening and mass application prospects.
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of lamination and encapsulation, two techniques that have been widely used for strengthening deteriorated papers.
Describes the Bookkeeper deacidification process.
Evaluates seven deacidification methods and considers issues of toxicity and solubility of inks and colors.
Discusses criteria for making decisions to microfilm or deacidify books for long-term preservation. The merits of microfilming and deacidification are listed, along with a brief explanation of how each option relates to the concept of a national collection.
Provides excerpts from the Library of Congress's request for proposals, issued on 13 September 1990, to provide mass deacidification for their paper-based books. Includes deacidification priorities, internal logistics, quality assurance, library specifications, documentation requirements, program safety, and maintenance.
Highlights a commercial process said to increase the life of treated book paper by tenfold and to strengthen it as well.
Discusses degradation of paper and deacidification's effect on this process from a technical perspective.
Summarizes work in deacidification procedures conducted by the Battelle Institute. Translated from the German.
Examines the efficacy of strengthening and deacidification processes on the permanence and durability of paper. This paper includes numerous mathematical and graphic models.
Describes the diethylzinc mass deacidification process developed by the Library of Congress, highlighting the objectives this process was designed to meet.
Reviews the sources for paper acidity and provides a handy synopsis of existing mass deacidification methods.
Summarizes technical and logistical factors to be considered when contemplating a commitment to mass deacidification.
Considers managerial and operational issues of mass deacidification from a library-management perspective.
Reports research of exposing deacidified (magnesium bicarbonate and Wei T'O no. 3) newsprint and chemically bleached woodpulp book papers to ambient levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide before and after deacidification. Absorption rates and concentrations of sulfates, nitrites, and nitrates were measured.
Tells how radioactively labeled enzymes were used to measure the efficiency of rinsing two different alpha-amylases from paper.
Reports on research into fixing--making water-soluble inks insoluble--in order to enable documents to undergo aqueous conservation treatments.
Addresses the reactions of different fibers and media to alkali. (Article also appears in the AIC Book and Paper Group Annual 9 .)
Outlines a rationale for selecting materials and methods of a research project. Investigates the effects of a fumigant, Vikane (sulphurylfluoride), on cellulosic and ligneous materials.
Provides a comprehensive evaluation of a commercially available fumigant, Vikane (Dow Chemical Company), including information about its use, chemical reactivity, physical properties, efficacy, and toxicity.
Summarizes current knowledge and little-known facts about the deposition of dirt.
Presents properties of cellulose ethers for conservation. Stability is assessed by discoloration and loss of molecular weight from thermal and photochemical aging.
Investigates fungicidal efficacy of eight chemicals that may be used in thymol cabinets. No chemical was found effective for killing indigenous mold on books.
Offers a procedure for mapping pH by means of a grid system using a polyester film template. The varying pH levels within a badly degraded text block display a pattern of distribution that might help interpret the origin and causes of deterioration.
Describes a mending procedure using methyl cellulose and Tengujo fibers.
Explains the conservation of a collection of Islamic bookbindings to be exhibited.
Examines paper washing from a theoretical angle, determining experimentally the influence of various parameters on paper washing and establishing the conditions for optimal results. Also studies the actual effect of an established washing procedure. Factors influencing the speed and efficiency of extracting decomposition products from paper are determined.
Discusses the conservation treatment of a collection of late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century notebooks and manuscripts. Treatment sequence includes documentation; pH testing; dry cleaning; washing and deacidification; sizing; repair techniques and related materials; equipment and tools; binding methods; and protective housing. Generalized observations are made on why a particular procedure or method of treatment was appropriate.
Hypothesizes that leather dressing was applied to books to prevent deterioration caused by pollution and residual acid from the tanning and dyeing process. Dressing methods were borrowed from farms and households where grease and other substances were used to protect leather against water and the stiffness that results when wet leather dries. Four antique formulas are given.
Provides an overview of the leafcasting process for filling losses in paper documents. Includes a discussion of leafcasting's effectiveness and equipment needs.
Offers information on identifying inks and photocopies.
Presents conservation treatment of an oversized architectural drawing along with the item's interesting historical background.
Recounts technical examination and conservation treatment of a sixteenth-century Mexican manuscript.
Concludes that the alpha-amylase in saliva accounts for its good cleaning ability. Discusses comparison with other cleaning solvents.
Deals with criteria for establishing conservation priorities and treatment options for twenty-six volumes containing textile samples in the Heal Archives. Criteria considered: to stabilize the volumes; make the volumes safe to handle and minimize further damage; minimize turnaround time; preserve volumes in book form; and use the simplest methods compatible with conservation requirements in order to minimize the amount of time and supervision necessary. Treatment options are assessed with a detailed explanation of a pilot treatment of one volume employing minimum intervention and encapsulation.
Discusses the manufacture, properties, and relative stability of polyester films, from a technical perspective.
Describes how water-soluble or flaking inks, pigments, and gold, as well as burnished paper, dictate the limitations of conservation treatments possible for these materials.
Provides results of experiments that used synthetic polymers (cellulose ethers, polyacryl, polyvinyl alcohol) as adhesives, strengthening agents, and temporary protection for records during conservation treatment.
Relates the examination and application of cellulose acetate film in the conservation treatment of one of the Library of Congress's treasures.
Investigates a twentieth-century watermark and its reaction to various treatments.
General archival bibliography.
General archival bibliographies.
Special resource issue listing organizations and publications highlighting safety.
Recent literature on the preservation of nonpaper records, including sound recordings, moving images, photographs, microforms, and magnetic and optical media.
Includes laboratories and organization; indexes, abstracts, and databases; publications and newsletters; and a report: "Preservation Research at the Library of Congress: Recent Progress and Future Trends," by Chandru J. Shahani.
Provides resources of interest to librarians and archivists concerned with reprographic and imaging industries.
Bibliography resulting from the seminar sponsored by Technology and Conservation. Murray, Toby. Bibliography on Disaster, Disaster Preparedness and Disaster Recovery. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Conservation Congress, 1990. 59 pp.
Provides sources of technical assistance to promote occupational health and safety for archivists and conservators. Includes databases and print sources.
Reviews audiovisual programs on preservation-related topics.
Useful and comprehensive checklist of standards relating to the preservation of archival records and manuscripts.
The following titles target archival issues and preservation. These sources do not focus primarily on librarians and museum personnel, but on issues that concern these individuals.
Covers all aspects of archives and library preservation. Issued eight times a year; subscriptions are on a calendar year. New subscribers automatically receive all issues published in the current year unless they request otherwise. Individual subscriptions, $37; institutions, $45; full-time students and paid interns, $20.
320 E. Center Street
Provo, Utah 84606
Phone: (801) 373-1598
Fax: (801) 375-4423
Provides timely information on issues relating to permanent paper. Issued six times a year; subscriptions are on a calendar year. An index of the previous year is sent out the first quarter. Individual subscriptions, and uncomplicated institutional subscriptions, $30; full-time students, $20; others $40. All issues are in print and indexed.
Society of American Archivists
600 S. Federal Street
Chicago, Illinois 60605
Phone: (312) 922-0140
Fax: (312) 347-1452
Journal (published quarterly) and SAA Newsletter (published six times per year) are available through membership in the Society of American Archivists (SAA).
140016 Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: (202) 232-6636
Fax: (202) 232-6630
Professional organization for conservation practitioners. Members receive a bimonthly newsletter and a semiannual journal. Fellows, $100; associate and professional associate members, $85; institutions, $130; students and retirees, $30. Back issues available. Copies of AIC Book and Paper Group Annual and Topics in Photographic Preservation, AIC Photographic Materials Group are also available through the AIC.
172 Second Avenue
Nashville, Tennessee 37201
Phone: (615) 255-2971
Publishes a number of technical reports and leaflets relating to archives preservation.
Kevin Leonard, MAC Secretary/Treasurer
University Archives Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois 60208-2300
Semiannual journal published by the Midwest Archives Conference (MAC). MAC members receive the journal and the MAC Newsletter. Individual subscriptions, $12; institutions, $20. Single issues of the journal are available for $3.50 plus postage and handling. Index to volumes 18 (1976-83) are available at single-issue price.
Association of Canadian Archivists
P.O. Box 2596
Canada K1P 5W6
Phone: (613) 830-9663
Journal published semiannually by the Association of Canadian Archivists. $35, U.S. individual subscribers; $40, Canadian individual subscribers; institutional memberships, $45 U.S., $50 Canadian. Membership also includes the ACA Bulletin.
National Archives and Records Administration
Washington, D.C. 20408
Phone: (202) 501-5415
Produces bibliographies that are available on request, free of charge.
Society of Archivists, Inc.
P.O. Box 83 O'Connor ACT
Quarterly journal of the Australian Society of Archivists. Available to nonmembers for $40 (Australian) per year.
David Bearman, Managing Editor
Archives and Museum Informatics
5501 Walnut Street
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232-2311
Phone: (412) 683-9775
Fax: (412) 683-7366
Quarterly Newsletter contains updates on uses of automated techniques in archives and museums. Technical Reports assess specific technologies for use in archives and museum management. Subscriptions to Newsletter, individuals $40, United States and Canada; $50, overseas. Institutions pay $80, United States and Canada; $90, overseas. Technical Reports are available by standing order and are individually priced.
AATA Editorial Office
Getty Conservation Institute
4503 Glencoe Avenue
Marina del Rey, California 90292
Phone: (213) 822-2299 Fax: (213) 821-9409
Principal index to the technical and scientific literature of conservation and related fields. Includes information on archives and library materials and also covers exhibition techniques, environmental control, documentation practices, health and safety, and so on. Published semiannually. Formerly IIC Abstracts (1955-65). International Institute for Conservation members receive AATA free of charge. Nonmembers may purchase current and back issues for $75 per volume. The cost to institutions is $125 per volume.
Center for Safety in the Arts
5 Beekman Street
New York, New York 10038
Phone: (212) 227-6220
Covers such topics as hazards, precautions, government regulations, and others. Published five times per year. Subscription rates: $21, United States; $23, Canada and Pan American countries. Sixteen datasheets on museum and conservation hazards.
The National Center for Film and Video Preservation at the American Film Institute
P.O. Box 27999
2021 North Western Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90027
Phone: (213) 856-7637
Fax: (213) 467-4578
Focuses on the preservation and administration of moving image materials. Membership includes the AMIA Newsletter, published quarterly. Individual membership $50; $150 for nonprofit institutions.
P.O. Box 10162
Silver Spring, Maryland 20914
Phone: (301) 593-6552
Organization for collectors, librarians, and archivists with an interest in recorded sound materials. Membership includes a quarterly Newsletter and the ARSC Journal, published twice a year. Subscription membership is $30 for individuals.
National Archives of Canada
395 Wellington Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1A ON3 Canada
Phone: (613) 996-7686
An information service producing archival science bibliographies and database information. Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) 1030 Innes Road Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1a 0C8 Phone: (613) 998-3721 Offers a variety of technical bulletins, newsletters and offprints of articles written by CCI scientists and conservators. A number of very useful publications on photographic materials are found in CCI Notes. Most publications are supplied free of charge, by request. Commission on Preservation and Access Suite 740 140016th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036-2217 Phone: (202) 939-3400 Fax: (202) 939-3407 Publishes a monthly newsletter highlighting commission activities and concerns. Subscriptions are free. Complimentary copies of special reports are distributed when published.
University of Tulsa
600 South College Avenue
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104
Provides general information about preservation activities in libraries and archives. Published quarterly. Subscription price is $24.
4517 Penn Avenue North
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55412
Phone: (612) 588-7900
Fax: (612) 296-9961
Offers information on paper, papermaking history, and allied crafts. Subscriptions, United States, Canada, and Mexico, are $25 for individuals, $60 for institutions. Overseas rates are $33 for individuals and $76 for institutions. Subscription includes three issues of the Bull and Branch Newsletter and a Journal that currently is published annually.
International Information Management
345 Woodcliff Drive
Fairport, New York 11450
Phone: (716) 383-8330
Offers micrographic and imaging information. Bimonthly publication of the International Information Management Congress. Nonmembers, $90.
SAA Preservation Section
c/o Society of American Archivists
600 S. Federal Street
Chicago, Illinois 60605
Phone: (312) 922-0140
Fax: (312) 347-1452
Presents timely information of interest to the archives preservation community. Issued three times per year. Free to members of SAA's Preservation Section.
Association for Information and Image
1100 Wayne Avenue
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
Phone: (301) 587-8202
Fax: (301) 587-2711
Monthly publication covering applications of micrographics, optical and computer technology, and systems. Subscription for the magazine: $85 domestic, $105 foreign.
Information Standards Quarterly
National Information Standards Organization
P.O. Box 1056
Bethesda, Maryland 20827
Provides updates on standards issues. A quarterly publication free to NISO members. Nonmembers may subscribe for $40, United States; $50 foreign.
Journal of record of the International Council on Archives. Published annually. Provides complete proceedings of the quadrennial conferences of the ICA and special topic issues.
Newsletter of the International Council on Archives; published twice per year.
Professional journal of the International Council on Archives; published twice per year. Intended to replace the occasional publications and newsletters of ICA bodies.
Publications available through $50 individual or institutional membership in ICA.
6 Buckingham Street
London WC2N England.
Publishes Studies in Conservation quarterly, the IIC Bulletin six times per year, and Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts (see above). Write for current membership information.
Society for Imaging Science and Technology
7003 Kilworth Lane
Springfield, Virginia 22151
Phone: (703) 642-9090
Fax: (703) 642-9094
Focuses on imaging technologies and related fields. Formerly the Journal of Applied Photographic Engineering. Bimonthly publication. U.S. subscription, $80; foreign, $90.
Dr. P. Durrant
Berkshire Record Office
RG2 9XD England
Published quarterly. Annual nonmember subscription, $22 U.S.
The Haworth Press, Inc.
10 Alice Street
Binghamton, New York 13904-1580
Phone: (607) 722-5857
Published quarterly. Individual subscriptions, $36; institutions, $90.
McKay Lodge Fine Arts Conservation Laboratory, Inc.
10915 Pyle-South Amherst Road
Oberlin, Ohio 44074
Focuses on conservation concerns. Published semiannually and is free to collections and preservation professionals on request. Individual and multiple copies available.
Virginia State Library and Archives
11th Street at Capitol Square
Richmond, Virginia 23219
Phone: (804) 786-5634
Fax: (804) 225-4608
Quarterly newsletter published by the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators. Individual membership, $40.
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, Virginia 22161
Phone: (703) 487-4650
Fax: (703) 321-8547
Provides information of great interest to individuals working in the archives field.
Quincy, Massachusetts 02269
Phone: (800) 344-3555
Publications on fire prevention for libraries, archives, and museums.
Secretary, Institute of Paper
WR6 SLB England
Focuses on paper conservation issues. Journal and Newsletter are available through membership: (Overseas) Full members, $76; student members, $50; corporate members, $152.
Formerly the quarterly Journal of the Picture Division, Special Libraries Association. Ceased publication in 1987. Microfilm available through University Microfilms.
Phone: (800) 521-0600
Society of Georgia Archivists
P.O. Box 80631
Athens, Georgia 30608
Phone: (404) 656-2393
Provenance, the journal of the Society of Georgia Archivists, is published semiannually. Membership also entitles subscribers to quarterly newsletters. Individual subscription rates are $15; institutions, $20.
Munksgaard International Publishers
35 Norre Sogad
Copenhagen K, Denmark
Contains general and technical articles on archives preservation. Published quarterly. Current subscription price $95.79, payable in advance. Prices subject to exchange-rate fluctuations.
Division of the General Information
Place de Fontenoy
75700 Paris, France
For copies of previously published materials contact:
Frederic J. Glazer
West Virginia Library Commission
Charleston, West Virginia 25305
Phone: (304) 348-2041
Fax: (304) 348-2044
Produces the RAMP publications on records and archives management topics, and other useful publications relating to archives and archives preservation.1
General archival issues, including preservation. To subscribe, send
a message to
LISTSERV@INDYCMS.bitnet and make the
first line of the message: SUBSCRIBE Archives YourFirstname
An electronic forum for those professionally involved with the preservation of library, archives, and museum materials. Discussions cover a wide range of technical, ethical, and administrative issues. Participants include conservators, archivists, conservation scientists, librarians, and curators. The DistList makes available the ConsDir, a directory of electronic mail addresses for preservation professionals and FileList, a distribution service for text files of interest to the preservation community. To participate, send your electronic mail message to Walter Henry (firstname.lastname@example.org), who will send you a brief questionnaire.
Concentrates on rare book, manuscripts, and special collections issues, such as preservation. To subscribe, send a message to LISTSERV@RUTVMl.bitnet and make the first line of the message: SUBSCRIBE EXLIBRIS YourFirstname YourLastname
Deals with library planning and construction. Discussions
cover environmental control, shelving, security, and other such
issues. To subscribe, send a message to
LISTSERVQUCDN.bitnet and make the first line of the
message: SUBSCRIBE Libpln-L YourFirstname
Aimed at museum professionals, comprising a diverse
group. Issues discussed may be of interest to archivists. To
subscribe, send a message to
and make the first line of the message: SUBSCRIBE Museum-L
Theoretically deals with Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACS),
but discussions actually cover all aspects of automation. May be
of interest to those involved with reformatting and nonprint
media. To subscribe, send a message to
and make the first line of the message: SUBSCRIBE PACS-L
These listservs are designed to support Research Library Group's (RLG) programs and are considered a benefit of membership in the Research Library Group. Membership is open to any nonprofit institution with an educational, cultural, or scientific mission and includes research libraries, archives, museums, scholarly societies, and funding agencies.
This section is designed to introduce the archivist to potential resources accessible through databases. Because many database projects are experimental, concise information about database function or content is sometimes difficult to obtain. Listed below are some standard database sources of promising interest to archivists and preservation personnel. Contacts have been included for additional information about these resources.
Holdings of archival and records management literature. Database of the National Archives and Records Administration. Contact:
National Archives and Records Administration
Washington, D.C. 20408
Phone: (202) 501-5415
Holdings of archival and records management literature. Database of the National Archives of Canada. Contact:
National Archives of Canada
396 Wellington Street
Phone: (613) 995-5138
This database network is administered by the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) and the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN). CIN provides access to several databases; those that may be of interest to archivists are listed below. For access or additional information contact:
Conservation Information Network
Journal Tower South, 12th Floor
365 Laurier Avenue West
Phone: (613) 992-3333
BCIN is a collaborative project of the following organizations:
BCIN is a bibliographic compilation of its members' holdings. It contains holdings of the ICCROM library in Rome, the world's largest collection of materials relating to conservation, as well as the on-line holdings of Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts (AATA). AATA is an abstracting and indexing service, published since 1983 by the Getty Conservation Institute and the International Institute for the Conservation of Historical and Artistic Works (IIC). BCIN contains AATA citations from the early 1950s to the present.
Contains technical data about material and solvents used in conservation.
An automated database from the Picture Conservation Division of the National Archives of Canada. Provides information on the preservation of microfilm, fiche, historical still photographic negatives and prints, motion picture film, and related materials.
Provides a list of predominantly North American and European suppliers for materials used in conservation. Includes addresses, telephone numbers, fax numbers, and other information for contacting suppliers.
A commercial database vendor, providing on-line access to publications and information services. Among the databases of interest to archivists are the following:
Index of world's periodical literature and related social sciences and humanities.
Comprehensive file indexing and abstracting of the full range of U.S. and Canadian history, area studies, and current affairs literature.
International multidisciplinary database corresponding to Arts and Humanities Citation Index. Covers 1,300 of the world's leading arts and humanities journals and relevant social and natural sciences journals.
Covers field of library and information science and related areas.
Comprehensive database covering international patent and journal literature related to pulp and paper technology.
Searching strategies are also available to search multiple databases in DIALOG (DIALINDEX/OneSearch categories):
HUMANIT searches many databases for information pertaining to the humanities INFOSCI searches numerous databases relative to library and information science. Contact DIALOG (Knight Ridder) at (800)-3-DIALOG to request additional information. There is a one-time $45 membership fee that provides access to over 425 databases. Search charges vary according to database.
Includes 50 million cataloging records for books; serials and their contents; musical scores; sound recordings; archival collections; maps; computer files; visual materials, such as films and photographs; and art sales catalogs.
Preservation MasterFile on CD-ROM is a compilation of all records for preservation master microforms in the RLIN database, the richest source for preservation records in the world. It is updated twice annually, published jointly by the Research Libraries Group and Chadwyck-Healey.
Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT). May be useful for describing artifacts and documents; is available through RLIN.
Contact Research Libraries Group, Inc. 1200 Villa Street Mountain View, California 94041-1100. Phone: (415) 962-9951