THE CONSERVATION OF AMERICAN WAR MEMORIALS MADE OF ZINC
CAROL A. GRISSOM, & RONALD S. HARVEY
The authors wish to acknowledge the generosity of the following colleagues for their contributions to this article and conversations about the topic. These include Harriet F. Beaubien, Adrienne and Joseph Bresnan, Joseph W. Fiske III, Vanessa Hohev, Douglas Kwart, Andrew Lins, Dennis Montagna, Susan Olsen, Tom Podnar, Dick Polich, Tracy Power, Robert Spring, Nicholas Veloz, and, most of all, Robert Mark.
Albert, A.1976. Record of American uniform and historical buttons. Hightstown, N.J.: Boyertown Publishing Co..
American Bronze Co. ca. 1891. White and antique bronze monumental work. Catalog. 41 Van Buren St., Chicago.
Bakewell & Mullins. 1884. Architectural sheet metal ornaments and statuary. Catalog 4C. Salem, Ohio.
Bakewell & Mullins.  1999. Designs of architectural ornaments manufactured in sheet zinc, brass or copper. Catalog 5D. Salem, Ohio. Reprinted as Victorian architectural sheet-metal ornaments. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications.
Bronnet, J.1997. Personal communication. Royalston Art Foundry, Royalston, Mass..
Danielson, G. F.1858. Payment to James Bogardus, September 2. Citizens Bank, 870 Westminster, Providence, R.I. Collection of Citizens Bank.
Daprato Statuary Co. 1921. Creations in ecclesiastical art. 14th ed. Catalog. 762–70 W. Adams St., Chicago.
Fiske, J. M.1941. Letter, March 17. Collection of J. W. Fiske III, Princeton, N.J.
Fiske, J. W. ca. 1868–69. Fountains, vases, iron and wire railings of all kinds. Catalog. 120 Nassau St., New York.
Fiske, J. W.1874. Illustrated catalogue of zinc statuary, deer, dogs, lions, griffins, sphinx, phoenix, and other lawn and garden ornaments. Catalog. 23 Barclay St. and 26 & 28 Park Place, New York.
Fiske, J. W.1893. Letter to Gov. G. D. S. Tract, June 19. Snug Harbor Archives, Sailors' Snug Harbor, Staten Island, N.Y..
Fiske, J. W. ca. 1908–15[missing title page]. Catalog. 56 & 58 Park Place, New York..
Fiske, J. W.III2000. Personal communication. Last president of J.W. Fiske Architectural Metals, Inc., and nephew twice removed of J.W. Fiske's founder. Princeton, N.J.
Fried, F.1970. Artists in wood. New York: Clarkson N. Potter.
Friedley & Voshardt1897. Architectural sheet metal ornaments, statuary, etc. Catalog. 194 & 196 Mather St., Chicago.
Friedley-Voshardt Co. 1925. Architectural sheet metal ornaments, statuary, spun work made from zinc, copper, bronze, lead, etc. Catalog 50. 733–37 S. Halsted St., Chicago.
Grissom, C. A.1994. The conservation of outdoor zinc sculptures. In Ancient and historic metals, ed. D. A.Scott et al. Marina del Rey, Calif.: Getty Conservation Institute. 279–304.
Grissom, C. A. Forthcoming. Zinc sculpture in America.
Harris, M. F.2000. Gambrinus, the spirit of brewing. Breweriana Collector111:6–12.
Hierath, S.2000. Berliner Zinkguss in der Architektur und Bildkunst des 19 Jahrhunderts. Ph.D. diss., Technical University, Berlin.
Hinckley, C. T.1853. A day at the Ornamental Iron Works of Robert Wood. Godey's Lady's Book46:4–12.
Holm, K.1994. Production and restoration of nineteenth-century zinc sculpture in Denmark. In Ancient and historic metals, ed. D. A.Scott et al. Marina del Rey, Calif.: Getty Conservation Institute. 239–48.
Inventory of American Sculpture, Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.www.siris.si.edu (accessed January 27, 2003).
Israel, B.2000. The metalwork of J. W. Fiske and Company. Magazine Antiques157(March):474–83.
Kobler, N.1999. �ber Zink und Zinkguss. In Zinkguss, ed. P.Mottner and M.Mach. Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes f�r Denkmalpflege 98. Munich. 16–49.
Krebs, E.2002. Personal communication. Metals conservator, Vienna, Austria.
Kwart, D.2001. Personal communication. Sculpture conservator, Newark, Del.
Lemonte, A. D., ed.1947. A story of people: The story of Mullins, the story of your job. Salem, Ohio: Mullins Manufacturing Corp.
Lins, A.1996. Report on the Grand Army of the Republic Monument in the Borough of Pottstown, Montgomery County, Pa. Unpublished report. Conservation Department, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Borough of Pottstown, c/o Dave Forest.
Monumental Bronze Co.1882. White bronze monuments, statuary, portrait medallions, busts, statues and ornamental art work for cemeteries, public and private grounds and buildings. Catalog. Bridgeport, Conn.
Mott Iron Works, J. L.1873. Illustrated catalogue of statuary, fountains, vases, settees, etc., for parks gardens and conservatories. Catalog. 90 Beekman St., corner of Cliff St., New York.
Mott Iron Works, J. L.1890. Illustrated catalogue and price list of statuary and animals. Catalog. 84 & 90 Beekman St., New York.
Mott Iron Works, J. L.1901. Drinking fountains. Catalog K. 84 & 90 Beekman St., New York.
Mott Iron Works, J. L.1911. Statuary in metal. Catalog. Fifth Ave. and 17th St., New York.
Mott Iron Works, J. L.1913. Invoice to Hershey Stores Co., May 17. Hershey Community Archives, Hershey, Pa.
Mottner, M.1998. Denkm�ler aus Blei, Zinn und Zink Materialforschung, Restaurierung. In Metallrestaurierung, Konservierung, ed. M.Mach. Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes f�r Denkmalpflege 94. Munich. 100–112.
Mullins, W. H.1896. Architectural sheet metal work and statuary. Catalog. Salem, Ohio.
Mullins, W. H.1913. The blue and the gray: Statues in stamped copper and bronze. Catalog. Salem, Ohio.
Polich, R.2001. Personal communication. Polich Art Works, Rock Tavern, N.Y.
Richman, J. I.1998. Brooklyn's Green-Wood Cemetery. Brooklyn: The Cemetery.
Riederer, J.1997. Korrosionssch�den an Zinkskulpturen. In Korrosionssch�den an Zinkskulpturen.Berliner Beitr�ge zur Arch�ometrie 14. Berlin. 5–210.
Rotundo, B.1989. Monumental Bronze: A representative American company. In Cemeteries and gravemarkers: Voices of American culture, ed. R. E.Meyer. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press. 263–91.
Sammel, D. J.2002. Personal communication. Sammel Architecture, Armonk, N.Y.
Sandhurst, P. T., et al. 1879. Industrial and fine arts of the world, as shown at the Philadelphia and other international exhibitions. Philadelphia: P. W. Ziegler.
Saw, A. B.1910. Ornamental white bronze castings.Foundry35:191–95.
Schuyler, Parsons, Landon & Co.1878. White bronze monuments and statuary, medallions, portrait busts, &c. for cemeteries, public and private grounds. Catalog. Bridgeport, Conn.
Scientific American. 1885. White bronze. Scientific American53(November 14):309.
Seelig, M. J. & Co.1876. Illustrated catalogue of zinc statuary. Catalog. 115–21 Maujer St., Williamsburg, N.Y.
Seelig, M. J. & Co.1892. Letter to J. W. Fiske, January 1. Collection of J. W. Fiske III, Princeton, N.J.
Seelig, M. J. & Co.1927. Letter to J. W. Fiske Iron Works, February 17. Collection of J. W. Fiske III, Princeton, N.J.
Sellin, D.1974. The Centennial. In Sculpture of a city: Philadelphia's treasures in bronze and stone.Philadelphia: Fairmont Park Art Association. 78–83.
Sheet-metal Builder1876. The Sheet-metal Pavilion, Centennial Exhibition. Sheet-metal Builder3:2–4, 33–34.
Spring, R.2001. Personal communication. Modern Art Foundry, Astoria, N.Y.
Stiles, H., ed.1884. The civil, political, professional and ecclesiastical history and commercial and industrial record of the County of Kings and the Cityof Brooklyn, N.Y. from 1683 to 1884. New York: W. W. Munsell & Co.816–17.
Tilghman, B. C.1870. Improvement in cutting and engraving stone, metal, glass, &c. U.S. Patent 108,408, October 17.
V�sgen, N.1997. Studien zum Berliner Zinkguss des 19. Jahrhunderts. In Korrosionssch�den an Zinkskulpturen.Berliner Beitr�ge zur Arch�ometrie 14. Berlin. 211–317.
Walker, F. A., ed.1880. United States Centennial Commission: International Exhibition 1876—Reports and awards, vol. 6. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Ward, J. Q. A.1874. Letter to D. C. French, March 27. Archives, Concord Free Public Library, Concord, Mass.
Western White Bronze Co.1893. White bronze monuments and statuary. Catalog. Des Moines, Iowa.
Wilkinson, W.1871. Letter to J. W. Fiske, June 22. Collection of J. W. Fiske III, Princeton, N.J.
SOURCES OF MATERIALSPliacre
Philadelphia Resins 130 Commerce Dr. Montgomeryville, Pa. 18936
CAROL A. GRISSOM received a B.A. in art history from Wellesley College and an M.A. in art conservation from Oberlin College. She has been interested in zinc statues since examining the disassembled Fourth Ohio Infantry Monument at Gettysburg National Military Park in 1979. Since 1984 she has worked as senior objects conservator at the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, now the Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education. Address: Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education, MRC 534, 4210 Silver Hill Rd., Suitland, Md. 20746
RONALD S. HARVEY received a B.A. in art at Monmouth University and an M.A. in fine arts (sculpture) at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, followed by a formal apprenticeship in conservation at the Milwaukee Public Museum. After working as a conservator at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology and the Milwaukee Public Museum, he opened his own practice in 1990. Address: Tuckerbrook Conservation, 2498 Belfast Rd., Lincolnville, Maine 04849