EFFECTS OF DILUTE CALCIUM WASHING TREATMENTS ON PAPER
JOHN BOGAARD, & PAUL M. WHITMORE
ABSTRACT—Dilute aqueous solutions of three different calcium salts have been compared for their effectiveness as wash treatments for stabilizing the cellulose of paper objects. Treated paper samples were evaluated for chemical changes resulting from the treatment and from subsequent accelerated thermal aging. The extent of alkaline damage of the treated sheets was found to be insignificant even for photo-oxidized papers. The treatments slowed the deterioration of the paper during thermal aging, but eventually the protective benefit weakened. Neutralization of acid in the sheets had a greater stabilizing effect on the paper than did the presence of calcium. Dilute alkaline calcium washes were less effective in retarding degradation of photo-oxidized papers than the same washes of unoxidized sheets. Chemical reduction of the photo-oxidized paper followed by washing with the dilute alkaline calcium solution was very effective at slowing its deterioration during thermal aging. Treatment with the dilute alkaline calcium solution also slowed photo-oxidation of paper during exposure to near-ultraviolet radiation.
2. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH
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