JAIC , Volume 39, Number 1, Article 12 (pp. to )
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC , Volume 39, Number 1, Article 12 (pp. to )




1.. The term “prototype domain” refers to the dimensions and characteristics of the full-size structure and the parameters of the real earthquake. “Model domain” refers to those of the scale model and the test earthquake, which are reduced in value by some function of the scale factor that is not necessarily linear.


The authors would like to express their gratitude and appreciation to the following diverse group of individuals and organizations that participated in the GSAP effort: Edna E. Kimbro, Charles C. Thiel, Jr., and Frederick A. Webster, who were members of the project team; Helmut Krawinkler and Chris Thomas of the John A. Blume Engineering Center, Stanford University; Predag Gavrilovic, Lazar Sumanov, Veronika Sendova, Lj. Taskov, and Dimitar Jurukovski of IZIIS (Macedonia); and Edward Crocker, Anthony Crosby, Wayne Donaldson, Melvyn Green, James Jackson, Helmut Krawinkler, John Loomis, Nicholas Magalousis, and Julio Vargas Neumann of the GSAP Advisory Committee. We would also like to thank Neville Agnew and Frank Preusser, who actively supported and encouraged these studies at the Getty Conservation Institute.


Bariola, J. B.1991. Dynamic stability of adobe walls. Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.

California State Historical Building Code. 1999. State of California Title 24, Buildings Standards Part 8, Sacramento, Calif.

Forell/Elesser Engineers. 1977. Structural evaluation and proposal for reinforcement—Cooper-Molera adobes, Monterey, California. Forell/Elesser Engineers Inc., San Francisco, Calif.

Forell/Elesser Engineers. 1977–78. Cooper-Molera lateral analysis. Forell/Elesser Engineers, Inc., San Francisco, Calif..

Scawthorn, C. S., and A. M.Becker. 1986. Relative benefits of alternative strengthening methods for low strength masonry buildings. San Francisco, Calif.: Dames and Moore Inc.

Thomasen, S. E., and C. L.Searls. 1991. Seismic retrofit of historic structures in California. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Structural Repair and Maintenance of Historical Buildings, vol. 2, ed. C. A. Brebbia et al. Southhampton, U.K.: Computational Mechanics Publications. 45–51.

Tolles, E. L., F. A.Webster, A.Crosby, and E. E.Kimbro. 1996. Survey of damage to historic adobe buildings after the January 24 Northridge earthquake. Getty Conservation Institute Scientific Program Report, J. Paul Getty Trust Publication, Los Angeles, Calif.


Alva, A. B.1989. Earthquake damage to historic masonry structures. In Conservation of building and decorative stone, vol. 2, ed. J.Ashhurst and F. G.Dimes. London: Butterworth-Hunemann. 107–13.

Thiel, C. C., Jr., E. L.Tolles, E. E.Kimbro, F. A.Webster, and W. S.Ginell. 1991. The Getty Conservation Institute guidelines for seismic strengthening of adobe project: Report of first year activities. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, Calif.

Tolles, E. L., E. E.Kimbro, C. C.ThielJr., F. A.Webster, and W. S.Ginell. 1993. The Getty Conservation Institute guidelines for the seismic retrofitting of adobe project: Report of second year activities. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, Calif.


WILLIAM S. GINELL received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1949. Since then, he has held research positions at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Atomics International, Aerospace Corporation, and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company. He joined the Getty Conservation Institute in 1984 as head of materials science and currently is senior conservation research scientist. His principal research interests are conservation in humid, tropical environments; stone and earthen materials conservation; seismic stabilization of historic structures; and architectural conservation. Address: Getty Conservation Institute, 1200 Getty Center Dr., Suite 700, Los Angeles, Calif. 90049

E. LEROY TOLLES, Ph.D., P.E., has worked on the seismic design, testing, and retrofit of earthen structures for the last 16 years and specializes in the structural design and construction of adobe and wood buildings. In 1989 he received his doctorate from Stanford University, where he performed research on the seismic design of residential buildings in developing countries. He is principal for ELT & Associates, a northern California engineering and architecture firm that specializes in the design and engineering studies of buildings in seismic areas. Address: 251 Lafayette Circle, Ste. 230, Lafayette, Calif. 94549