THE HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SCHREGER PATTERN IN PROBOSCIDEAN IVORY CHARACTERIZATION
EDGARD O'NIEL ESPINOZA, & MARY-JACQUE MANN
Fifty-two mammoth and elephant ivory samples were examined visually and processed statistically. Our elephant sample consisted of 26 cut and polished transverse dentine sections of Loxodonta africana (n = 4), Elephas maximus (n = 1), and unspecified species of extant elephant (n = 21). The mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) sample consisted of 26 identically prepared sections. The samples, each representing a randomly excised section from an individual tusk, were obtained from museum and zoo collections, whole or largely intact confiscated tusks, and commercial sources. Five concave and five convex angles from the outside expression area of each sample were collected and analyzed according to Espinoza et al. (1990).
Ivory from three Elephas maximus, three Loxodonta africana, five unspecified species of modern elephant, and five Mammuthus primigenius were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Five mm square blocks of ivory from tusk sections of equivalent diameter and central cavity configuration were prepared by chisel fracture. The blocks were glued to 2.5 cm SEM stubs, sputter coated with gold, and examined using a CamScan Series 4 scanning electron microscope at magnifications from 500x to 4,000x.