Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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A defect in leather seen as small pinholes or as tiny scars. Warbles are caused by the larvae of the grub or warble fly (family Oestridae), which develop under the skin of the animal and emerge in the area of the backbone. If the animal is slaughtered before the wounds heal, the defect is known as "open warbles," while if sufficient time elapses for the animal to develop scar tissue, they are then called closed or "blind warbles." In either case leather produced from a warbled hide is unsatisfactory in both strength and appearance. (363 )

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