Paste has been used for centuries to join porous, non-greasy materials. At one time it was made from flour (frequently wheat flour) mixed with water, but other materials now are frequently added to achieve particular results. The present-day tendency is to use ready-made paste in which the proportions of the ingredients are scientifically blended.
Paste has many uses in bookbinding, although its use is declining in favor of the increased use of cold resinous adhesives, such as polyvinyl acetate. It is still used, however, in covering, for pasting down endpapers, and in casing-in, etc. It is also used for decorative work (see: PASTE PAPERS ), in repairing torn leaves, and the like. In paper conservation, rice starch and wheat starch pastes are used for hinging, lining, and in long-fiber repairs. (183 , 186 , 218 , 309 , 339 )