Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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cockle ( cockled )

1. A wrinkled or puckered condition in a sheet of paper or board (or vellum) caused, in the case of paper or board, by nonuniform drying and shrinkage, or from heat and humidity, and, in the case of vellum, by humidity. 2. A condition of the paper in books caused by excessive humidity and wetting. Cockling in books is magnified significantly if the grain direction of the paper is not parallel to the binding edge. 3. A term also applied to book covers (boards) rising, pulling, waving or curling, and caused by incorrect grain direction of the covering cloth, board paper, or the board itself, or by the use of the wrong type of adhesive or too much adhesive. 4. A warty growth in sheepskin. (98 , 139 , 156 , 335 )

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