Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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A red dyestuff obtained from the dried bodies of the female of the insect Dactylopius coccus. The deep red color of the dye stems from carminic acid (C 22 H 22 O 13 ). Cochineal was used extensively in the 19th century in the production of red marbling colors and scarlet lakes. It is also used in the dyeing of wool and silk. (97 , 235 )

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