Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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1. The process of applying pumice, brick dust, red earth, or a similar material, to the GOLD CUSHION prior to laying the gold leaf on it for cutting. Chalking helps prevent the leaf from sticking to the cushion. 2. A printing defect caused by the use of an ink that has been over-reduced, or an ink that is not suitable for the paper, causing the ink vehicle to soak into the paper leaving the pigment on the surface where it can easily be smudged or rubbed off. 3. A condition encountered in some papers where fine particles of pigment break off the sheet during finishing, converting, printing, or subsequent use.

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