Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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1. A very thin innermost split of a hide, usually a cowhide, which is colored and grained to give the appearance of the outer surface of the hide. A buffing is created when a hide is split into three layers. At one time it was used extensively for linings, as well as for covering trade books. It was never used in fine bookbinding. 2. The process of producing a fine nap on the grain surface of leather by means of carborundum paper or on the flesh sides of small skins by the action of an emery wheel. In sandpapering the grain surface of leather, the sharp edges of the carborundum, or other abrasive material, cut the microscopic fibrils in the grain surface and produce a fine nap on the surface. Many of the grain defects in a leather do not penetrate into the leather nearly to the depth of the grain layer, and can be entirely removed by buffing. When a leather is buffed to a measurable depth, as it may have to be if the grain defect is very deep, it is said to be buffed; when it is buffed to a lesser depth, it is said to be snuffed. When a leather is buffed so lightly as not to impair the grain pattern, the leather is said to have a CORRECTED GRAIN . 3. The process of polishing the leather covers of a book with a soft fabric wheel. (264 , 278 , 325 , 358 , 363 )

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