Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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book papers

A class or group of cultural papers which have in common characteristics that, in general, make them suitable for the graphic arts. The various characteristics are designed to meet the requirements of the method of printing and the end use of the publication produced. Book papers are produced from rag pulps, mechanical and chemical wood pulps, esparto pulp, cotton fiber pulps, reclaimed paper stock, or combinations of different pulps. Mineral fillers, sizing, coloring matter, or other materials are added to the pulp in whatever combination is needed to give the appearance, strength, opacity, brightness, printability, permanence, etc., to fit the immediate or end use of the paper. The bulk of this type of paper is produced on a conventional FOURDRINIER MACHINE and is machine dried; however, some book papers are made on cylinder and hand molds.

Uncoated book papers are used in the printing of periodicals, books, pamphlets, and the like, and are converted into other products such as tablets, ledger paper, etc. They are generally made on a Fourdrinier machine and may or may not be surface sized. They are made to various bulk specifications and in a variety of finishes, including antique, eggshell, machine, English, a:nd super-calendered, as well as in special or fancy finishes. Uncoated papers are made in basis weights 30 to 150 pounds (25 X 38�), the most common weights being 30 to 70 pounds.

Coated papers are used in the printing of periodicals, books, pamphlets, etc., where the use of fine halftone illustrations may be required. They are well sized and possess good tearing strength. The base papers are coated with white mineral pigments mixed with adhesives such as casein, starch, latex, resin, or glue, either on the papermaking machine as part of the manufacturing process or as a separate operation subsequent to the manufacture of the base paper. Waxes or soaps may also be added to the coating mixtures to add to the finish and feel of the paper. The mineral pigments employed include clay, satin white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfite, and titanium oxide, which may be applied as such or in mixtures, the selection of the combination used being determined by the effect required. The adhesives and the amounts used are selected according to the surface strength of the coating md its resistance to moisture and vehicles used in the printing inks. Coated papers may be coated on one or both sides with a single or double coating. Virtually all are supercalendered, with finishes ranging from a dull matte to a high gloss. The basis weights for these papers range from 30 to 150 pounds (25 X 38�), with 40 to 80 pounds being most common. Coated papers usually have a brighter color, greater opacity, and a higher finish than uncoated book papers. (17 , 36 , 40 , 63 , 78 , 323 , 346 , 366 )

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