Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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avaram (bark)

A tree (Cassia auriculata) found in India, the bark of which is one of the most important sources of indigenous tannin of the Indian Subcontinent. The bark usually has a tannin content of approximately 18%, along with about 10% soluble non-tans. Avaram has long been used extensively by Indian tanners, and it is because of it that the extensive Madras export trade in light-tanned or half tanned leathers was established. Although WATTLE (BARK) has largely superseded it in the tannage of cattle hides, avaram is still in great demand for the tannage of goat- and sheepskins, i.e., "East India kips." Avaram is self-bating and penetrates the skin rapidly, producing a pale colored, tough, elastic leather. Used alone, the leather is likely to develop a reddish color when exposed to sunlight; however completion of the tannage with MYRABOLANS prevents this from happening. Avaram is considered to be an ideal tannin for the preparation of half tanned skins or kips that are to be shipped elsewhere for finishing. See also:VEGETABLE TANNINS . (175 )

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