Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books
A Dictionary of Descriptive Terminology

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1. Substances added in small proportions to products to improve their performance, or to enhance their attractiveness or value. Additives are also used to prevent bacterial action, drying, staling, as well as to inhibit corrosion, oxidation, decomposition, etc. 2. All of the nonfibrous raw materials used in making paper. They may be added at any point during the papermaking process or after the paper has been manufactured. Treatment of the entire sheet (internal treatment) entails mixing the additives with the paper pulp, in which case they are known as wet-end additives. If only the surface of the sheet is to be treated, the additives are applied directly to the surface of the paper, and are known as external additives. Paper additives are used to color and size paper, control pH, improve physical properties, and increase wet strength. They are also used as defoamers, dispersants, plasticizers, preservatives, retention aids, and the like. (58 , 98 )

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