Chronology of Office Copying Processes

Copyright 1993 by Luis Nadeau
Luis Nadeau
P.O. Box 221, Station A
Fredericton, NB
Canada E3B 4Y9

Compiled from his Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic, and Photomechanical Processes. Words in small caps refer to index items in the Encyclopedia. Numbers in square brackets [ ] refer to the page number in the Encyclopedia where more information and sources can be found. "a" refers to the left column and "b" refers to the right column. Items followed by * refer to articles that will be covered in Vol. 3 or in a new edition. Numbers between ( ) refer to the abbreviation section of Vol. 2 (pp. cccix-cccxxi) and Vol. 3.

Important: This chronology is still in progress and is far from complete. THE AUTHOR INVITES CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS WHICH CAN BE SENT TO HIS MAILING ADDRRESS ABOVE OR TO:

#       YEAR                COMMENTS
--      ----                --------

#1      100BC               RUBBINGS. [102a] To disseminate engraved
                            inscriptions on stone tables or rocks, the
                            Chinese used a simple ink and a thin
                            absorbent paper rubbed against an

#2      1714                Henry Mills "ARTIFICIAL MACHINE". [78a]
                            Engl. Pat. of 1714. We have not found this
                            patent yet.

#3      1780                James Watt Pat. [78a] GLUTINOUS INK pressed
                            against paper with screw press.

#4      1805-1950s          Writing with aniline ink (often methyl blue)
                            transferable to a gelatin pad from which
                            several copies could be made. Known as
                            ANILIN PROCESS; CHROMOGRAPH; COPYGRAPH
                            [1884]; GELATIN METHOD [124a]; HECTOGRAPH
                            [124a]; INDIRECT METHOD [124a]; POLYGRAPH

#5      1806                Carbon paper. See CARBONATED PAPER in
                            Encyclopedia [78a].

#6      1839                BREYERTYPE [49a], brought into practical use
                            much later as PLAYERTYPE and MANUL PROCESS
                            (ca 1922), followed by the Typon PROCESS
                            (1927). These belong to categories known as
                            REFLECTOGRAPHY, REFLEX COPYING PROCESS and
                            REFLEXION COPYING PROCESS. Two U.S. brand
                            names were DEXIGRAPH* and LINAGRAPH*. See
                            1896 PLAYERTYPE, for description.

#7      1839                Photography, e.g., DAGUERREOTYPE, SALT
                            PRINT, CALOTYPE.

#8      1841-1890s          ANASTATIC PROCESS OF LITHOGRAPHY. [31a]
                            Invented in Germany and in England in 1844.
                            Used for FACSIMILE reproductions. A print
                            soaked in dilute nitric acid was applied
                            firmly onto a sheet of zinc, allowing the
                            acid to etch the metal where the ink of the
                            print did not prevent it. After more
                            etching, the plate was ready to be inked up
                            with a roller and provide many impressions.

#9      1842                Herschel's BLUEPRINT PROCESS, [47b] little
                            used in North America until ca 1876. This
                            uses the sensitivity of ferric salts reduced
                            by the action of light to a ferrous state,
                            resulting in the precipitation of Prussian
                            blue (ferric-ferrocyanide) by the action of
                            potassium ferrocyanide. This process
                            provides white lines on a blue background.
                            See 1877 PELLET PROCESS.

#10     1854                AUTOGRAPHIC PROCESS. [39b] Early application
                            of lithography.

#11     1864                ANILINE PROCESS of W. Willis. [32, 415b] A
                            dichromated paper was exposed under a
                            positive and subjected to the fumes of
                            aniline, by which means aniline colors were
                            formed. For twenty years the process was
                            used with little competition other than that
                            of the BLUEPRINT (1876) and PELLET (1877)

#12     1876                BLUEPRINT paper popular in North America.
                            [47b] Possibly of earlier date, e.g. 1840's.

#13     1877                PELLET PROCESS. [360a] Much like Herschel's
                            BLUEPRINT, except that it was a positive
                            from positive process that gave blue lines
                            on a white background.

#14     1878                COLLOGRAPHY. [72b] Invented in England by A.
                            Pumphrey. A film of gelatin on glass was
                            dichromated and dried. Writing or drawing
                            was done on a suitable paper with solutions
                            or iron salts, nutgalls, or similar
                            substances. This tanned the gelatin surface,
                            to which the design was next transferred. By
                            keeping the gelatin pad moist and applying
                            an ink roller, the lines would take the
                            greasy ink, but the white parts would repel
                            it. Paper was then brought into contact with
                            the pad, and an impression taken by rubbing
                            or squeegeeing. See 1891 AUTOCOPYIST.

#15     1880s               FERRO-GALLIC PROCESS [106a]. Very popular
                            overseas, around 1880s, although more
                            complicated than ordinary blueprint. Paper
                            coated with an emulsion of ferric chloride
                            and tartaric acid, with gum arabic or
                            gelatin, was developed in a solution of
                            gallic acid after exposure under a tracing.
                            Another version of this process included the
                            gallic acid in the emulsion so development
                            simply required plain water. Ferro-gallic
                            paper gives black lines on a white
                            background. Also known as COLAS' PROCESS.

#16     1880s?              PAPYROGRAPHY. [358b] A special type of ink
                            was used to write upon a specially prepared
                            paper. The sheet was then soaked in water,
                            and the ink corroded the fabric of the wet
                            paper, leaving open lines in place of the
                            writing. The sheet was then used as a

#17     1880s?              POROTYPE. [397b] A bleach-out process used
                            on continental Europe for the reproduction
                            of engravings. It depended on the fact that
                            the ink lines were practically impervious to
                            a certain gas as compared with the paper. A
                            paper coated with a chemical pigment that
                            could be bleached by the gas was pressed
                            into contact with the engraving, and the
                            back of the latter subjected to the gaseous
                            fumes, which were obstructed by the lines of
                            the picture; these therefore remained
                            pigmented in the copy, while the unprotected
                            ground was bleached.

#18     1880s?              EDISON ELECTRIC PEN. [453b] This produced a
                            STENCIL made by the aid of a style
                            containing a fine needle which was moved up
                            and down by a small motor at the top of the
                            pen. This created a series of minute holes
                            that produced a stencil which could be used
                            to provide more than 500 copies.

#19     1883, ca            TRYPOGRAPH. [453b] Similar to the
                            CYCLOSTYLE, except that the paper  was
                            stretched over a metal plate that had a
                            multitude of sharp corrugations, which
                            pierced the paper as a style was moved over
                            them. The paper then could be used as a

#20     1883                CYCLOSTYLE. [81b] A special type of paper
                            was stretched over a smooth metal plate. The
                            writing instrument held a small wheel having
                            a serrated edge, perforating the paper with
                            minute cut lines, creating a STENCIL. Later
                            replaced by NEOSTYLE, ca 1920s?

#21     1884, ca            COPYGRAPH*. A type of HECTOGRAPH. (OED2, V.
                            3, 917). See 1805-1950s.

#22     1884, ca            POLYGRAPH. [396b] Writing with aniline ink
                            transferable to a gelatin pad from which
                            several copies could be made. Also known as
                            [124a]; HECTOGRAPH [124a]; INDIRECT METHOD
                            [124a]; POLYGRAPH [396b]. See 1805-1950s.

#23     1887                MIMEOGRAPH (STENCIL). [333b; 435a] Invented
                            by T.A. Edison and marketed by A.B. Dick of

#24     1888, ca            ANTHRACOTYPE [33a, 415b] A DIRECT CARBON
                            process mostly used as a REPRODUCTION
                            PROCESS FOR MAPS, PLANS, ETC.

#25     1889-today          VANDYKE process. [460a] An IRON-SILVER
                            system that produces white lines on a brown
                            background. Also known as BROWNPRINT, SOLAR
                            PAPER, SILVER PAPER.

#26     1891                AUTOCOPYIST. [39a] An improved version of
                            COLLOGRAPHY (1878) which made use of a
                            matrix made of parchment stretched over a
                            bed-plate. The printing was made by an
                            ordinary letter-copying press. By 1891, the
                            French designed "Autocopiste" was popular in
                            the U.S.A.

#27     1896                PLAYERTYPE. [390a] A REFLEX COPYING PROCESS,
                            also referred to as REFLECTOGRAPHY, in which
                            a silver gelatin paper was placed face down
                            on the printed matter, pressed into contact
                            and exposed through the back of the silver
                            paper. The light through the paper was
                            reflected back from the white surface of the
                            letter, plan, or drawing, whereas the dark
                            lines of the latter hardly reflected any
                            light at all. On development, a negative
                            copy was obtained. See 1839 BREYERTYPE.

#28     1900-1950s          TRUE-TO SCALE [453]. Originally, an ink made
                            with a ferric salt was used to insolubilize
                            a gelatin pad which was then used as a
                            printing matrix. The process was improved by
                            the use of a blueprint paper as a matrix
                            which could produce about twenty five pulls.
                            Originally from France, the process was
                            licensed to a number of users in 1904,
                            including five in Germany. Details of the
                            procedure became widely known in 1910 and
                            the process quickly became in widespread use
                            for the REPRODUCTION OF MAPS, PLANS, ETC.

#29     1909-today          PHOTOSTAT. [382b] A camera that used
                            photographic (silver) paper instead of film.
                            Originally, the copy was negative, i.e.,
                            white text on black background, unless
                            rephotographed to obtain black text on a
                            white background. In 1953 Eastman Kodak Co.
                            introduced a DIRECT POSITIVE paper, KODAK
                            PHOTOSTAT POSITIVE W PAPER, which offered
                            black text on white background.

#30     1920s               DIAZOTYPE. [86a] First process to seriously
                            compete with the BLUEPRINT, which it
                            replaced by the 1950s for the REPRODUCTION
                            OF MAPS, PLANS, ETC. Also known as
                            WHITEPRINT; AMMONIA PRINT; B&W; GAS-PRINT;
                            3M DRY DIAZO.

#31     1920s               SPIRIT DUPLICATING. [433b] The master copy
                            was a negative made by typing or writing on
                            a sheet of nonabsorbent paper backed with a
                            carbon containing dye. Copies were made by
                            moistening the sheets of paper with the
                            volatile fluid and bringing them into direct
                            contact, under pressure, with the negative
                            impression of the master copy. The master
                            sheet was a rotary drum. With each rotation
                            of the drum the moisture on the copy sheet
                            dissolved a very small fraction or layer of
                            the dye on the master copy. This produced
                            positive results--usually of purple
                            color--on the copy sheet. (EA5 74b-74d).

#32     1920s?              NEOSTYLE*. STENCIL process for handwriting
                            and typewriting that replaced CYCLOSTYLE.
                            Thousands of copies could be made in one
                            hour using an "indestructible" paper
                            stencil. (JDGA 182).

#33     1922, ca            MANUL process. [325a] A variation of the
                            PLAYERTYPE (1896) that used dichromated
                            gelatin to make facsimile reproductions of
                            bound books without taking them apart. See
                            1927 TYPON.

#34         1927            TYPON process. [455b] A variation of the
                            PLAYERTYPE (1896) that used silver gelatin
                            materials to make facsimile reproductions of
                            bound books without taking them apart. See
                            1922, ca MANUL.

#35     1938                XEROGRAPHY invented, but not commercialized
                            before 1948 and not popular before 1960

#36     1947                KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE PAPER. A silver
                            process that gave a direct positive image
                            with a single development operation. Widely
                            used as a REPRODUCTION PROCESS FOR MAPS,
                            PLANS, ETC.--for the final print and as an
                            intermediate. The paper could be handled in
                            bright room light and could be used in the
                            same equipment as for diazo or blueprint
                            papers, provided a yellow filter was

#37     1948                KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE FILM. A silver
                            process, coated on a translucent film
                            support that permitted erasures and
                            additions in ink or pencil to the photo on
                            the support side. Because of its
                            transparency, the film allowed considerably
                            faster travel on DIAZO and BLUE-PRINT
                            exposing equipment than did KODAGRAPH
                            AUTOPOSITIVE PAPER (1947).

#38     1948                XEROGRAPHY is commercially introduced.
                            [475a] Its basic principle was invented in
                            1938 and became popular after 1960. One
                            source (SPGI 134) says that the first Xerox
                            copier was tested during 1949 and came on
                            the market one year later.

#39     1948, ca            DUOSTAT*, introduced by Kodak Ltd. (U.K.)
                            and apparently not available in U.S. A
                            SILVER PROCESS. A type of STABILIZATION
                            process involving a porous plate, on which
                            the exposed paper was placed, and the
                            application of a developer and stabilizing
                            solution by means of a viscose sponge.
                            Subsequently, stabilization processing was
                            reduced to a single operation by the use of
                            a single-solution developer-stabilizer.
                            (MDPEF 251)

#40     1949                DIFFUSION TRANSFER. [87a] Agfa's Copyrapid;
                            Geveart's Gevacopy (1950); Kodak's Verifax
                            (1952-1976); Copyproof (1980s?); DT was
                            widespread in various countries by 1960.
                            Other products not specifically intended as
                            copying processes, which used similar
                            technology include PMT; Kodak Ektaflex
                            (1981); Polaroid, sepia (1948), id., black
                            and white (1950), id., color (1963).

#41     1949-50             KODAGRAPH REPRO-NEGATIVE PAPER. A low-speed
                            negative material (SILVER PROCESS) that
                            could be used in drawing-reproduction
                            equipment in well-lighted rooms.

#42     1950                THERMOGRAPHY. [446a] The process used
                            heat-sensitive paper, exposed to infrared
                            radiation by the REFLEX method. The process
                            was not suitable for many dye images that
                            did not reflect infrared radiations (see
                            1896 PLAYERTYPE). The basic principle was
                            discovered in 1939 but was not put on the
                            market before 1950 by 3M Company under the
                            name 3M Thermo-Fax [446a].

#43     1950s?              KODAK REFLEX COPY PAPER, Type 1075. Could be
                            used in subdued room light.

#44     1952-1976           Kodak VERIFAX. [461a], based on a DIFFUSION
                            TRANSFER invention by Yutzy and Yackel in
                            1947. Could produce prints by reflectography
                            on plain, uncoated paper stock, with overall
                            brown cast. Readyprint* was a different
                            brand using the same technology. See 1896

#45     1953                CARBONLESS PAPER* Transfer, chemical type,
                            produced by  Appleton Coated Paper for NCR.
                            (NHPR 413a). This often produced a purple
                            image. Mostly used for multiple-copy
                            business forms.

#46     1953-today(1989)    KODAK PHOTOSTAT POSITIVE W PAPER and
                            KODAGRAPH PROJECTION POSITIVE PAPER were
                            introduced for limited use, primarily for
                            copying waybills for railway and steamship
                            companies. See 1909 PHOTOSTAT.

#47     1954-today          ELECTROFAX. [97b] Direct electrostatic on a
                            support coated with zinc oxide developed
                            with a liquid or dry toner. (NHPR 333b,

#48     1955-today(1991)    STABILIZATION PROCESS. [434a] A SILVER
                            PROCESS first shown in the DUOSTAT (1948,
                            ca) but not popular before significant
                            improvements were made. See 1956 RETROFLEX.

#49     1956                RETROFLEX* SILVER PROCESS. Announced by
                            Kodak Pathe, used stabilization processing
                            and produced a positive in room light
                            without plumbing and washing equipment. The
                            copy was placed under the translucent
                            support of the Retroflex paper and exposed
                            through the back of the original document.
                            The definition was not so good as that
                            obtained in emulsion-to-emulsion contact,
                            but was satisfactory. (MDPEF 251).

#50     1950s (late)        COLOR TONERS for ELECTROFAX and Haloid Corp.
                            Xerox (7 colors).

#51     1958                ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS for 3M Filmac line of
                            microfilm reader-printers

#52     1960                XEROGRAPHY (ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY) becomes
                            popular. [475a] Invented in 1938 and
                            introduced commercially in 1948.

#53     1960s?              VQC* (3M, VARIABLE QUALITY COPIER).

#54     1960s               EICHNER DRYCOPY PROCESS*. A variant form of
                            thermographic copying. See 1950

#55     1960s               DUAL SPECTRUM PROCESS*. A dry process in
                            which the energy coming from the visible
                            part of the electromagnetic spectrum forms a
                            latent image, which is made visible by the
                            invisible radiant energy of the infrared
                            region of the spectrum. Was marketed by 3M.

#56     1960s               ADHEROGRAPHY*, a duplicating process
                            developed by 3M. Images were formed by the
                            adherence of powder to a tacky latent image
                            created by the effect of infrared heat. This
                            provided a master from which 200 to 250
                            copies could be made. The powder image of
                            the resulting print was fused to the paper
                            by heat.

#57     1963                CARBONLESS* "Action" paper introduced by 3M
                            (NHPR 414b). By 1974 there were 16 major
                            producers of carbonless paper worldwide.

#58     1964                THERMALLY PROCESSED SILVER (TPS) film,
                            commonly referred to as "dry silver", was
                            first commercialized by 3M Company in the
                            mid 1960s with the introduction of microfilm
                            reader-printers. [446a] TPS films and papers
                            are now common in many areas once limited to
                            wet electrostatic and silver halide

#59     1965                3M ELECTROCOLOR PRINT. [448a] Not

#60     1968                COLOR-IN-COLOR*, first full color copier,
                            introduced by 3M. A direct electrostatic
                            process coupled with a thermal dye transfer
                            system. Bright images on a velvety or glossy
                            surface. Details suppressed.

#61     1968, ca            THERMOGRAPHIC WASH-OFF FILM* Geveart-Agfa
                            Transparex film for overhead transparencies
                            and Thermoline Wash-Off Film for
                            REPRODUCTION OF MAPS, PLANS, ETC (PTICR

#62     1973                XEROX 6500 Color Copier. Bright images with
                            plenty of sharp details.

#63     1980s               Color copiers from Canon, etc.

#64     1980s?              COPYPROOF. [87b] (1949 DIFFUSION TRANSFER).
                            Mostly for graphic arts applications.


(not complete)


black                   white                   See most processes

black                   bluish                  See 1954-today

black                   brown                   See 1952-1976 Kodak

blue, methyl (anilin)   white                   See 1805s-1950s

blue (solid)            white                   See 1877 PELLET

blue                    white                   See 1920s DIAZOTYPE

brown                   white (or now brownish) text may have been black

purple                  white or colored        See 1920s SPIRIT

purple                  white                   See 1953 CARBONLESS

white                   black                   See 1909 PHOTOSTAT

white                   blue                    See 1842 BLUEPRINT

white                   brown                   See 1889 VANDYKE BROWN

yellow                  white or yellowish      text may have been black

various colors          white        Various.   See 1950s (late) color
                                                toners for ELECTROFAX.
                                                Haloid Co. (later Xerox)
                                                introduced 7 colors;
                                                1968 COLOR-IN-COLOR;
                                                1973 XEROX Color Copier

(not complete)

  PLAIN, UNCOATED PAPER STOCK. This includes most processes. See below
    for processes that require(d) coated paper stock.


    1889-today      VANDYKE process
    1896            PLAYERTYPE
    1909-today      PHOTOSTAT
    1920s           DIAZOTYPE
    1948            DUOSTAT
    1949            DIFFUSION TRANSFER
    1950            THERMOGRAPHY
    1950s?          KODAK REFLEX COPY PAPER
    1953-today      KODAK PHOTOSTAT POSITIVE W PAPER and
    1955-today      STABILIZATION PROCESS
    1956            RETROFLEX
                    ELECTROLYTIC Filmac
    1960s           ELECTROFAX
    1960s?          VQC*???
    1964            THERMALLY PROCESSED SILVER (TPS; dry silver) paper
    1960s           DUAL SPECTRUM PROCESS*
    1965 3M         ELECTROCOLOR PRINT

(not complete)

  LOW. Most processes.


    1952-1976       KODAK VERIFAX
    1949            DIFFUSION TRANSFER
    1950            THERMOGRAPHY
    1954-today      ELECTROFAX
    1920s           DIAZOTYPE (if paper is thin)
    1960s           DUAL SPECTRUM PROCESS


    1958            ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS
                    Also some of the above mentioned processes if used
                    with a thin stock.


    Soft images, slightly out of focus: May indicate the use of a
    process that did not use an emulsion-to-emulsion contact in order to
    provide right way around reading material. Ex.: 1956, RETROFLEX.

    Soft images may also indicate that the document is a second or third
    generation copy.


Note: Numbers following # refer to paragraph numbers in the chronology


    A.B. Dick #23
    Action paper, carbonless, 3M #57
    adherography, 3M #56
    Agfa's Copyrapid #40
    ammonia print #30
    anastatic process of lithography #8
    anilin process #4, #22
    Aniline process (Willis) #11
    Appleton Coated Paper #45
    artificial machine #2
    Autocopiste #26
    autocopyist #26
    autographic process #10
    Autopositive Film, Kodagraph #37
    Autopositive Paper, Kodak #36


    B&W #30
    black lines on a white background #15
    black text on white background #29
    bleach-out process #17
    blueprint #11, #13
    blueprint popular #12
    blueprint process #9
    blueprint, compete against #30
    Breyertype #6
    brown cast #44
    brownprint #25


    calotype #7
    carbon paper #5
    carbonated paper #5
    carbonless paper #45, #57
    chromograph #4, #22
    Colas' process #15
    collography #14, #26
    color copier from 3M #60
    color copier from Canon #63
    color copier from Xerox #62
    color copier, first #60
    color toners for Electrofax #50
    Color-in-Color, 3M #60
    copygraph #4, #21
    Copyproof #40, #64
    Copyrapid, Agfa #40
    cyclostyle #19, #20, #32


    daguerreotype #7
    Dexigraph #6
    diazotype #30
    diffusion transfer #40
    diffusion transfer invention, Verifax #44
    direct carbon #24
    direct electrostatic on a support coated with zinc oxide
    direct positive image with a single development opera-
    tion #36
    direct positive paper #29
    dry silver, thermally processed silver #58
    Dual Spectrum process, 3M #55
    duostat #48
    Duostat, Kodak Ltd #39
    dye transfer, thermal system #60


    Edison electric pen #18
    Edison, T.A. #23
    Eichner drycopy process #54
    Ektaflex, Kodak #40
    electric pen, Edison #18
    Electrocolor print, 3M Co. #59
    Electrofax #47
    Electrofax, color toners for #50
    electrolytic process, 3M Co. #51
    electrophotography, xerography #52

    facsimile reproductions #8
    facsimile reproductions of bound books #33
    facsimile reproductions of bound books without taking
    them apart #34
    ferro-gallic process #15


    gas-print #30
    gelatin method #4, #22
    Gevacopy, Geveart's #40
    Geveart's Gevacopy #40
    Geveart-Agfa Transparex film, wash off #61
    glutinous ink #3


    hectograph #4, #21, #22
    Herschel #9, #13


    indirect method #4, #22
    iron-silver system #25


    Kodagraph Autopositive Film #37
    Kodagraph Autopositive Paper #36
    Kodagraph Projection Positive Paper #46
    Kodagraph Repro-Negative Paper #41
    Kodak Ektaflex #40
    Kodak Path Retroflex #49
    Kodak Photostat Positive W Paper #29, #46
    Kodak Reflex Copy Paper, Type 1075 #43
    Kodak Verifax #44


    Linagraph #6
    lithography #10


    Manul process #6, #33
    methyl blue #4
    microfilm reader-printers #58
    mimeograph #23


    NCR, carbonless paper #45
    neostyle #20, #32


    papyrography #16
    Pellet #11
    Pellet process #13
    pen, electric #18
    photography #7
    photostat #29
    Photostat Positive W Paper #46
    plain, uncoated paper stock, Verifax #44
    playertype #6, #27
    playertype, variation of #33, #34
    PMT #40
    Polaroid, sepia #40
    polygraph #4, #22
    porotype #17
    porous plate #39
    positive from positive process #13
    Pumphrey, A. #14
    purple color #31


    Readyprint, diffusion transfer #44
    reflectography #6, #27, #44
    reflex copying process #6, #27
    reflex method #42
    reflexion copying process #6
    reproduction of maps, plans, etc #28
    Retroflex #49
    rubbings #1


    salt print #7
    silver paper #25
    solar paper #25
    spirit duplicating #31
    stabilization process #39, #48
    stencil #16, #18, #19, #20, #23
    stencil, neostyle #32


    thermal dye transfer system #60
    thermally processed silver (TPS) #58
    Thermo-Fax, 3M Co. #42
    thermographic wash-off #61
    thermography #42
    Thermoline Wash Off Film #61
    3M Company Dry silver #58
    3M Company, Thermo-Fax #42
    3M Dry Diazo #30
    3M Dual Spectrum #55
    3M Electrocolor #59
    3M Filmac line of microfilm reader-printers #51
    3M VQC #53
    3M, Color-in-Color #60
    TPS (thermally processed silver) #58
    True-to scale #28
    trypograph #19
    Typon #6
    Typon process #34


    vandyke process #25
    Variable Quality Copier #53
    Verifax, Kodak #40, #44
    VQC #53


    wash-off Film, thermographic #61
    white lines on a brown background #25
    white text on black background #29
    whiteprint #30


    xerography commercialized #38
    xerography invented #35
    xerography popular #52
    Xerox 6500 Color Copier #62


    Yackel #44
    Yutzy #44


    zinc oxide coated #47

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