Compiled from his Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic, and Photomechanical Processes. Words in small caps refer to index items in the Encyclopedia. Numbers in square brackets [ ] refer to the page number in the Encyclopedia where more information and sources can be found. "a" refers to the left column and "b" refers to the right column. Items followed by * refer to articles that will be covered in Vol. 3 or in a new edition. Numbers between ( ) refer to the abbreviation section of Vol. 2 (pp. cccix-cccxxi) and Vol. 3.
Important: This chronology is still in progress and is far from complete. THE AUTHOR INVITES CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS WHICH CAN BE SENT TO HIS MAILING ADDRRESS ABOVE OR TO: firstname.lastname@example.org
# YEAR COMMENTS -- ---- -------- #1 100BC RUBBINGS. [102a] To disseminate engraved inscriptions on stone tables or rocks, the Chinese used a simple ink and a thin absorbent paper rubbed against an inscription. #2 1714 Henry Mills "ARTIFICIAL MACHINE". [78a] Engl. Pat. of 1714. We have not found this patent yet. #3 1780 James Watt Pat. [78a] GLUTINOUS INK pressed against paper with screw press. #4 1805-1950s Writing with aniline ink (often methyl blue) transferable to a gelatin pad from which several copies could be made. Known as ANILIN PROCESS; CHROMOGRAPH; COPYGRAPH ; GELATIN METHOD [124a]; HECTOGRAPH [124a]; INDIRECT METHOD [124a]; POLYGRAPH [396b]. #5 1806 Carbon paper. See CARBONATED PAPER in Encyclopedia [78a]. #6 1839 BREYERTYPE [49a], brought into practical use much later as PLAYERTYPE and MANUL PROCESS (ca 1922), followed by the Typon PROCESS (1927). These belong to categories known as REFLECTOGRAPHY, REFLEX COPYING PROCESS and REFLEXION COPYING PROCESS. Two U.S. brand names were DEXIGRAPH* and LINAGRAPH*. See 1896 PLAYERTYPE, for description. #7 1839 Photography, e.g., DAGUERREOTYPE, SALT PRINT, CALOTYPE. #8 1841-1890s ANASTATIC PROCESS OF LITHOGRAPHY. [31a] Invented in Germany and in England in 1844. Used for FACSIMILE reproductions. A print soaked in dilute nitric acid was applied firmly onto a sheet of zinc, allowing the acid to etch the metal where the ink of the print did not prevent it. After more etching, the plate was ready to be inked up with a roller and provide many impressions. #9 1842 Herschel's BLUEPRINT PROCESS, [47b] little used in North America until ca 1876. This uses the sensitivity of ferric salts reduced by the action of light to a ferrous state, resulting in the precipitation of Prussian blue (ferric-ferrocyanide) by the action of potassium ferrocyanide. This process provides white lines on a blue background. See 1877 PELLET PROCESS. #10 1854 AUTOGRAPHIC PROCESS. [39b] Early application of lithography. #11 1864 ANILINE PROCESS of W. Willis. [32, 415b] A dichromated paper was exposed under a positive and subjected to the fumes of aniline, by which means aniline colors were formed. For twenty years the process was used with little competition other than that of the BLUEPRINT (1876) and PELLET (1877) processes. #12 1876 BLUEPRINT paper popular in North America. [47b] Possibly of earlier date, e.g. 1840's. #13 1877 PELLET PROCESS. [360a] Much like Herschel's BLUEPRINT, except that it was a positive from positive process that gave blue lines on a white background. #14 1878 COLLOGRAPHY. [72b] Invented in England by A. Pumphrey. A film of gelatin on glass was dichromated and dried. Writing or drawing was done on a suitable paper with solutions or iron salts, nutgalls, or similar substances. This tanned the gelatin surface, to which the design was next transferred. By keeping the gelatin pad moist and applying an ink roller, the lines would take the greasy ink, but the white parts would repel it. Paper was then brought into contact with the pad, and an impression taken by rubbing or squeegeeing. See 1891 AUTOCOPYIST. #15 1880s FERRO-GALLIC PROCESS [106a]. Very popular overseas, around 1880s, although more complicated than ordinary blueprint. Paper coated with an emulsion of ferric chloride and tartaric acid, with gum arabic or gelatin, was developed in a solution of gallic acid after exposure under a tracing. Another version of this process included the gallic acid in the emulsion so development simply required plain water. Ferro-gallic paper gives black lines on a white background. Also known as COLAS' PROCESS. #16 1880s? PAPYROGRAPHY. [358b] A special type of ink was used to write upon a specially prepared paper. The sheet was then soaked in water, and the ink corroded the fabric of the wet paper, leaving open lines in place of the writing. The sheet was then used as a STENCIL. #17 1880s? POROTYPE. [397b] A bleach-out process used on continental Europe for the reproduction of engravings. It depended on the fact that the ink lines were practically impervious to a certain gas as compared with the paper. A paper coated with a chemical pigment that could be bleached by the gas was pressed into contact with the engraving, and the back of the latter subjected to the gaseous fumes, which were obstructed by the lines of the picture; these therefore remained pigmented in the copy, while the unprotected ground was bleached. #18 1880s? EDISON ELECTRIC PEN. [453b] This produced a STENCIL made by the aid of a style containing a fine needle which was moved up and down by a small motor at the top of the pen. This created a series of minute holes that produced a stencil which could be used to provide more than 500 copies. #19 1883, ca TRYPOGRAPH. [453b] Similar to the CYCLOSTYLE, except that the paper was stretched over a metal plate that had a multitude of sharp corrugations, which pierced the paper as a style was moved over them. The paper then could be used as a STENCIL. #20 1883 CYCLOSTYLE. [81b] A special type of paper was stretched over a smooth metal plate. The writing instrument held a small wheel having a serrated edge, perforating the paper with minute cut lines, creating a STENCIL. Later replaced by NEOSTYLE, ca 1920s? #21 1884, ca COPYGRAPH*. A type of HECTOGRAPH. (OED2, V. 3, 917). See 1805-1950s. #22 1884, ca POLYGRAPH. [396b] Writing with aniline ink transferable to a gelatin pad from which several copies could be made. Also known as ANILIN PROCESS; CHROMOGRAPH; GELATIN METHOD [124a]; HECTOGRAPH [124a]; INDIRECT METHOD [124a]; POLYGRAPH [396b]. See 1805-1950s. #23 1887 MIMEOGRAPH (STENCIL). [333b; 435a] Invented by T.A. Edison and marketed by A.B. Dick of Chicago. #24 1888, ca ANTHRACOTYPE [33a, 415b] A DIRECT CARBON process mostly used as a REPRODUCTION PROCESS FOR MAPS, PLANS, ETC. #25 1889-today VANDYKE process. [460a] An IRON-SILVER system that produces white lines on a brown background. Also known as BROWNPRINT, SOLAR PAPER, SILVER PAPER. #26 1891 AUTOCOPYIST. [39a] An improved version of COLLOGRAPHY (1878) which made use of a matrix made of parchment stretched over a bed-plate. The printing was made by an ordinary letter-copying press. By 1891, the French designed "Autocopiste" was popular in the U.S.A. #27 1896 PLAYERTYPE. [390a] A REFLEX COPYING PROCESS, also referred to as REFLECTOGRAPHY, in which a silver gelatin paper was placed face down on the printed matter, pressed into contact and exposed through the back of the silver paper. The light through the paper was reflected back from the white surface of the letter, plan, or drawing, whereas the dark lines of the latter hardly reflected any light at all. On development, a negative copy was obtained. See 1839 BREYERTYPE. #28 1900-1950s TRUE-TO SCALE . Originally, an ink made with a ferric salt was used to insolubilize a gelatin pad which was then used as a printing matrix. The process was improved by the use of a blueprint paper as a matrix which could produce about twenty five pulls. Originally from France, the process was licensed to a number of users in 1904, including five in Germany. Details of the procedure became widely known in 1910 and the process quickly became in widespread use for the REPRODUCTION OF MAPS, PLANS, ETC. #29 1909-today PHOTOSTAT. [382b] A camera that used photographic (silver) paper instead of film. Originally, the copy was negative, i.e., white text on black background, unless rephotographed to obtain black text on a white background. In 1953 Eastman Kodak Co. introduced a DIRECT POSITIVE paper, KODAK PHOTOSTAT POSITIVE W PAPER, which offered black text on white background. #30 1920s DIAZOTYPE. [86a] First process to seriously compete with the BLUEPRINT, which it replaced by the 1950s for the REPRODUCTION OF MAPS, PLANS, ETC. Also known as WHITEPRINT; AMMONIA PRINT; B&W; GAS-PRINT; 3M DRY DIAZO. #31 1920s SPIRIT DUPLICATING. [433b] The master copy was a negative made by typing or writing on a sheet of nonabsorbent paper backed with a carbon containing dye. Copies were made by moistening the sheets of paper with the volatile fluid and bringing them into direct contact, under pressure, with the negative impression of the master copy. The master sheet was a rotary drum. With each rotation of the drum the moisture on the copy sheet dissolved a very small fraction or layer of the dye on the master copy. This produced positive results--usually of purple color--on the copy sheet. (EA5 74b-74d). #32 1920s? NEOSTYLE*. STENCIL process for handwriting and typewriting that replaced CYCLOSTYLE. Thousands of copies could be made in one hour using an "indestructible" paper stencil. (JDGA 182). #33 1922, ca MANUL process. [325a] A variation of the PLAYERTYPE (1896) that used dichromated gelatin to make facsimile reproductions of bound books without taking them apart. See 1927 TYPON. #34 1927 TYPON process. [455b] A variation of the PLAYERTYPE (1896) that used silver gelatin materials to make facsimile reproductions of bound books without taking them apart. See 1922, ca MANUL. #35 1938 XEROGRAPHY invented, but not commercialized before 1948 and not popular before 1960 [475a] #36 1947 KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE PAPER. A silver process that gave a direct positive image with a single development operation. Widely used as a REPRODUCTION PROCESS FOR MAPS, PLANS, ETC.--for the final print and as an intermediate. The paper could be handled in bright room light and could be used in the same equipment as for diazo or blueprint papers, provided a yellow filter was employed. #37 1948 KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE FILM. A silver process, coated on a translucent film support that permitted erasures and additions in ink or pencil to the photo on the support side. Because of its transparency, the film allowed considerably faster travel on DIAZO and BLUE-PRINT exposing equipment than did KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE PAPER (1947). #38 1948 XEROGRAPHY is commercially introduced. [475a] Its basic principle was invented in 1938 and became popular after 1960. One source (SPGI 134) says that the first Xerox copier was tested during 1949 and came on the market one year later. #39 1948, ca DUOSTAT*, introduced by Kodak Ltd. (U.K.) and apparently not available in U.S. A SILVER PROCESS. A type of STABILIZATION process involving a porous plate, on which the exposed paper was placed, and the application of a developer and stabilizing solution by means of a viscose sponge. Subsequently, stabilization processing was reduced to a single operation by the use of a single-solution developer-stabilizer. (MDPEF 251) #40 1949 DIFFUSION TRANSFER. [87a] Agfa's Copyrapid; Geveart's Gevacopy (1950); Kodak's Verifax (1952-1976); Copyproof (1980s?); DT was widespread in various countries by 1960. Other products not specifically intended as copying processes, which used similar technology include PMT; Kodak Ektaflex (1981); Polaroid, sepia (1948), id., black and white (1950), id., color (1963). #41 1949-50 KODAGRAPH REPRO-NEGATIVE PAPER. A low-speed negative material (SILVER PROCESS) that could be used in drawing-reproduction equipment in well-lighted rooms. #42 1950 THERMOGRAPHY. [446a] The process used heat-sensitive paper, exposed to infrared radiation by the REFLEX method. The process was not suitable for many dye images that did not reflect infrared radiations (see 1896 PLAYERTYPE). The basic principle was discovered in 1939 but was not put on the market before 1950 by 3M Company under the name 3M Thermo-Fax [446a]. #43 1950s? KODAK REFLEX COPY PAPER, Type 1075. Could be used in subdued room light. #44 1952-1976 Kodak VERIFAX. [461a], based on a DIFFUSION TRANSFER invention by Yutzy and Yackel in 1947. Could produce prints by reflectography on plain, uncoated paper stock, with overall brown cast. Readyprint* was a different brand using the same technology. See 1896 PLAYERTYPE. #45 1953 CARBONLESS PAPER* Transfer, chemical type, produced by Appleton Coated Paper for NCR. (NHPR 413a). This often produced a purple image. Mostly used for multiple-copy business forms. #46 1953-today(1989) KODAK PHOTOSTAT POSITIVE W PAPER and KODAGRAPH PROJECTION POSITIVE PAPER were introduced for limited use, primarily for copying waybills for railway and steamship companies. See 1909 PHOTOSTAT. #47 1954-today ELECTROFAX. [97b] Direct electrostatic on a support coated with zinc oxide developed with a liquid or dry toner. (NHPR 333b, 494). #48 1955-today(1991) STABILIZATION PROCESS. [434a] A SILVER PROCESS first shown in the DUOSTAT (1948, ca) but not popular before significant improvements were made. See 1956 RETROFLEX. #49 1956 RETROFLEX* SILVER PROCESS. Announced by Kodak Pathe, used stabilization processing and produced a positive in room light without plumbing and washing equipment. The copy was placed under the translucent support of the Retroflex paper and exposed through the back of the original document. The definition was not so good as that obtained in emulsion-to-emulsion contact, but was satisfactory. (MDPEF 251). #50 1950s (late) COLOR TONERS for ELECTROFAX and Haloid Corp. Xerox (7 colors). #51 1958 ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS for 3M Filmac line of microfilm reader-printers #52 1960 XEROGRAPHY (ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY) becomes popular. [475a] Invented in 1938 and introduced commercially in 1948. #53 1960s? VQC* (3M, VARIABLE QUALITY COPIER). #54 1960s EICHNER DRYCOPY PROCESS*. A variant form of thermographic copying. See 1950 THERMOGRAPHY. #55 1960s DUAL SPECTRUM PROCESS*. A dry process in which the energy coming from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum forms a latent image, which is made visible by the invisible radiant energy of the infrared region of the spectrum. Was marketed by 3M. #56 1960s ADHEROGRAPHY*, a duplicating process developed by 3M. Images were formed by the adherence of powder to a tacky latent image created by the effect of infrared heat. This provided a master from which 200 to 250 copies could be made. The powder image of the resulting print was fused to the paper by heat. #57 1963 CARBONLESS* "Action" paper introduced by 3M (NHPR 414b). By 1974 there were 16 major producers of carbonless paper worldwide. #58 1964 THERMALLY PROCESSED SILVER (TPS) film, commonly referred to as "dry silver", was first commercialized by 3M Company in the mid 1960s with the introduction of microfilm reader-printers. [446a] TPS films and papers are now common in many areas once limited to wet electrostatic and silver halide technologies. #59 1965 3M ELECTROCOLOR PRINT. [448a] Not commercialized. #60 1968 COLOR-IN-COLOR*, first full color copier, introduced by 3M. A direct electrostatic process coupled with a thermal dye transfer system. Bright images on a velvety or glossy surface. Details suppressed. #61 1968, ca THERMOGRAPHIC WASH-OFF FILM* Geveart-Agfa Transparex film for overhead transparencies and Thermoline Wash-Off Film for REPRODUCTION OF MAPS, PLANS, ETC (PTICR 58-60) #62 1973 XEROX 6500 Color Copier. Bright images with plenty of sharp details. #63 1980s Color copiers from Canon, etc. #64 1980s? COPYPROOF. [87b] (1949 DIFFUSION TRANSFER). Mostly for graphic arts applications. COLOR GUIDE INDEX (not complete) TEXT OR LINES BACKGROUND NOTE black white See most processes black bluish See 1954-today ELECTROFAX black brown See 1952-1976 Kodak VERIFAX blue, methyl (anilin) white See 1805s-1950s blue (solid) white See 1877 PELLET blue white See 1920s DIAZOTYPE brown white (or now brownish) text may have been black originally purple white or colored See 1920s SPIRIT DUPLICATING purple white See 1953 CARBONLESS PAPER white black See 1909 PHOTOSTAT white blue See 1842 BLUEPRINT white brown See 1889 VANDYKE BROWN yellow white or yellowish text may have been black originally various colors white Various. See 1950s (late) color toners for ELECTROFAX. Haloid Co. (later Xerox) introduced 7 colors; 1968 COLOR-IN-COLOR; 1973 XEROX Color Copier PAPER TYPE GUIDE (not complete) PLAIN, UNCOATED PAPER STOCK. This includes most processes. See below for processes that require(d) coated paper stock. SPECIALLY COATED PAPER STOCK. This includes 1889-today VANDYKE process 1896 PLAYERTYPE 1909-today PHOTOSTAT 1920s DIAZOTYPE 1947 KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE PAPER 1948 DUOSTAT 1949 DIFFUSION TRANSFER 1949-1950 KODAGRAPH REPRO-NEGATIVE PAPER 1950 THERMOGRAPHY 1950s? KODAK REFLEX COPY PAPER 1953-today KODAK PHOTOSTAT POSITIVE W PAPER and KODAGRAPH PROJECTION POSITIVE PAPER??? 1955-today STABILIZATION PROCESS 1956 RETROFLEX ELECTROLYTIC Filmac 1960s ELECTROFAX 1960s? VQC*??? 1964 THERMALLY PROCESSED SILVER (TPS; dry silver) paper 1960s DUAL SPECTRUM PROCESS* 1965 3M ELECTROCOLOR PRINT TENDENCY OF COPIES TO CURL (not complete) LOW. Most processes. NOTICEABLE. 1947 KODAGRAPH AUTOPOSITIVE PAPER 1952-1976 KODAK VERIFAX READYPRINT 1949 DIFFUSION TRANSFER 1950 THERMOGRAPHY 1954-today ELECTROFAX 1920s DIAZOTYPE (if paper is thin) 1960s DUAL SPECTRUM PROCESS PRONOUNCED 1958 ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS Also some of the above mentioned processes if used with a thin stock. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. Soft images, slightly out of focus: May indicate the use of a process that did not use an emulsion-to-emulsion contact in order to provide right way around reading material. Ex.: 1956, RETROFLEX. Soft images may also indicate that the document is a second or third generation copy. Index Note: Numbers following # refer to paragraph numbers in the chronology above. A A.B. Dick #23 Action paper, carbonless, 3M #57 adherography, 3M #56 Agfa's Copyrapid #40 ammonia print #30 anastatic process of lithography #8 anilin process #4, #22 Aniline process (Willis) #11 Appleton Coated Paper #45 artificial machine #2 Autocopiste #26 autocopyist #26 autographic process #10 Autopositive Film, Kodagraph #37 Autopositive Paper, Kodak #36 B B&W #30 black lines on a white background #15 black text on white background #29 bleach-out process #17 blueprint #11, #13 blueprint popular #12 blueprint process #9 blueprint, compete against #30 Breyertype #6 brown cast #44 brownprint #25 C calotype #7 carbon paper #5 carbonated paper #5 carbonless paper #45, #57 chromograph #4, #22 Colas' process #15 collography #14, #26 color copier from 3M #60 color copier from Canon #63 color copier from Xerox #62 color copier, first #60 color toners for Electrofax #50 Color-in-Color, 3M #60 copygraph #4, #21 Copyproof #40, #64 Copyrapid, Agfa #40 cyclostyle #19, #20, #32 D daguerreotype #7 Dexigraph #6 diazotype #30 diffusion transfer #40 diffusion transfer invention, Verifax #44 direct carbon #24 direct electrostatic on a support coated with zinc oxide #47 direct positive image with a single development opera- tion #36 direct positive paper #29 dry silver, thermally processed silver #58 Dual Spectrum process, 3M #55 duostat #48 Duostat, Kodak Ltd #39 dye transfer, thermal system #60 E Edison electric pen #18 Edison, T.A. #23 Eichner drycopy process #54 Ektaflex, Kodak #40 electric pen, Edison #18 Electrocolor print, 3M Co. #59 Electrofax #47 Electrofax, color toners for #50 electrolytic process, 3M Co. #51 electrophotography, xerography #52 F facsimile reproductions #8 facsimile reproductions of bound books #33 facsimile reproductions of bound books without taking them apart #34 ferro-gallic process #15 G gas-print #30 gelatin method #4, #22 Gevacopy, Geveart's #40 Geveart's Gevacopy #40 Geveart-Agfa Transparex film, wash off #61 glutinous ink #3 H hectograph #4, #21, #22 Herschel #9, #13 I indirect method #4, #22 iron-silver system #25 K Kodagraph Autopositive Film #37 Kodagraph Autopositive Paper #36 Kodagraph Projection Positive Paper #46 Kodagraph Repro-Negative Paper #41 Kodak Ektaflex #40 Kodak Path Retroflex #49 Kodak Photostat Positive W Paper #29, #46 Kodak Reflex Copy Paper, Type 1075 #43 Kodak Verifax #44 L Linagraph #6 lithography #10 M Manul process #6, #33 methyl blue #4 microfilm reader-printers #58 mimeograph #23 N NCR, carbonless paper #45 neostyle #20, #32 P papyrography #16 Pellet #11 Pellet process #13 pen, electric #18 photography #7 photostat #29 Photostat Positive W Paper #46 plain, uncoated paper stock, Verifax #44 playertype #6, #27 playertype, variation of #33, #34 PMT #40 Polaroid, sepia #40 polygraph #4, #22 porotype #17 porous plate #39 positive from positive process #13 Pumphrey, A. #14 purple color #31 R Readyprint, diffusion transfer #44 reflectography #6, #27, #44 reflex copying process #6, #27 reflex method #42 reflexion copying process #6 reproduction of maps, plans, etc #28 Retroflex #49 rubbings #1 S salt print #7 silver paper #25 solar paper #25 spirit duplicating #31 stabilization process #39, #48 stencil #16, #18, #19, #20, #23 stencil, neostyle #32 T thermal dye transfer system #60 thermally processed silver (TPS) #58 Thermo-Fax, 3M Co. #42 thermographic wash-off #61 thermography #42 Thermoline Wash Off Film #61 3M Company Dry silver #58 3M Company, Thermo-Fax #42 3M Dry Diazo #30 3M Dual Spectrum #55 3M Electrocolor #59 3M Filmac line of microfilm reader-printers #51 3M VQC #53 3M, Color-in-Color #60 TPS (thermally processed silver) #58 True-to scale #28 trypograph #19 Typon #6 Typon process #34 V vandyke process #25 Variable Quality Copier #53 Verifax, Kodak #40, #44 VQC #53 W wash-off Film, thermographic #61 white lines on a brown background #25 white text on black background #29 whiteprint #30 X xerography commercialized #38 xerography invented #35 xerography popular #52 Xerox 6500 Color Copier #62 Y Yackel #44 Yutzy #44 Z zinc oxide coated #47