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Subject: Funori


From: Christine Smith <capi>
Date: Wednesday, April 21, 1999
Gajendra Rawat inquired about using funori in paper conservation.  I
use it on a regular basis, having found it usually more successful
than other materials I have tried.  Specifically, it is
simultaneously strong, very liquid so it flows into cracks easily,
and truly matte (in any angle of light!).

I prepare it as follows:

Cut up 0.25 gm and soak overnight in 75 ml water.  This makes a good
volume for all but huge jobs at a consistency requiring/permitting
only a little thinning.  After the overnight soak, cook over low
heat till dissolved: do not boil.  Some stringy parts will remain.
Some conservators recommend cooling before straining, but I strain
the solution as soon as I've prepared it, use it, and then freeze
the remainder for use in the future. (Strain through a silk strainer
or cheese cloth: it has too many impurities or is too thick for a
paper filter).  The solution will be light gray/tan, hazy, and feel

To keep the solution as thin/free-flowing as possible while working,
I use a small hot plate on which I place a "double-boiler"
consisting of a container partly filled with water in which I set
the container with the funori solution.  Periodically stick your
finger in the funori to be sure it doesn't get too warm and/or
periodically turn off the heat on the hot plate.  If the funori
overheats, either during initial preparation or while you are
working, it becomes noticeably stringy.  I don't know whether this
affects its working strength, but I would discard it if this occurs.

Of course every situation is different, but after a variety of
frustrations with cellulose ethers, cellulose acetate, isinglass,
parchment size, and B-72,  I have found that funori has never
disappointed me.  If the surface you are consolidating is matte, it
will still look matte after consolidation.  If it is glossy, it will
still look glossy.

Sometimes I use it 1:1 with freshly made wheat starch paste, also
warm. Good luck with your project.

Christine Smith
Conservation of Art on Paper, Inc.
capi [at] erols__com
Fax: 703-836-8878

                  Conservation DistList Instance 12:82
                 Distributed: Thursday, April 22, 1999
                       Message Id: cdl-12-82-004
Received on Wednesday, 21 April, 1999

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