The Conservation Course Syllabus Pages

Course:510.108 Materials science of art and cultural objects
Date Offered:Spring 1998
Location:Baltimore, MD
Instructor:Jerome Kruger (and guests)
Institution:Johns Hopkins University, Materials Science and Engineering Department


1/27Lili Ott - JHU, Art and materials at Homewood
2/3Robert B. Pond Sr., JHU - Introduction to materials used in art objects
2/10Robert B.Pond, Jr., JHU - Metals: The casting of metallic art objects
Reading: Maryon and Plenderleith
2/17Jerome Kruger, JHU - The production of art objects by ancient metallurgists
Reading: Hodges "Chapter 4: Copper and Copper Alloys."
Homewood Museum survey due.
2/24Jerome Kruger, JHU - Corrosion: The degradation of art objects
Reading: Kruger
3/3Shelley Sturman, National Gallery of Art - Scientific analysis of art and cultural objects
Article Abstract #1 due.
3/10Johanna Bernstein, JHU - techniques for the analysis of decorative coatings
Reading: Feller Stolow and Jones
Baltimore Museum of Art survey due. Quiz #1. Turn in choice of object for Final Project for approval.
3/17Spring Break
3.24Johanna Bernstein, JHU - Wood and its use in art objects
Reading: Hoadley
3/31Donna Strahan, Walters Art Gallery - Organic materials used in art objects
Article abstract #2 due.
4/7Chandra Reedy, University of Delaware - Early American Glass
Reading: Brill
4/14Melanie Gifford, National gallery of art - Conservation science of paintings at the National gallery of Art
Reading: Mayer
Quiz #2
4/21Jacqueline Olin, Conservation Analytical Laboratory - Study of early European Contact Ceramics
Reading: Hodges "Chapter 1: Pottery"
Article abstract #3 due.
4/28Priscilla Anderson, Walters Art Gallery - Material science of Paper
Reading: Hunter
Final Project due

Guidelines for Writing an Abstract
1. Makes sure the reference is in an accepted bibliographic format. Look in a style guide or writing handbook for acceptable forms. Do not make one up. Make sure that the following information is present:
for articles
author, title,journal,volume numbers, page numbers
for a chapter in a book
author, title, chapter title, publisher, year, page numbers
2. Make sure that what you write contains:
a. a statement of purpose, statement of a problem or a hypothesis.
b. the procedure or methods used in the research.
c. a statement of results.
d. a statement of a conclusion.
An abstract does not contain the details of the article. An abstract is a bibliographic tool which is meant to inform a researcher what can be found in an article so that he or she will know if the article is an appropriate resource for this or her research. Be concise.
3. Mathematical formulas, diagrams and other illustrative materials are not appropriate in an abstract.
4. Make sure that the abstract is no longer than 250 words.

Sample Abstract

D.R. Abbott and D.M. Schaller,"Electron Microprobe and Petrographic Analyses of Prehistoric Hohokam Pottery to Determine Ceramic Exchange within the Salt River Valley, Arizona," Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II, 1985 eds. P.B. Vandiver, J. Druzik and G.S. Wheeler (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA) 441-453

Chemical assays with an electron microprobe in conjunction with petrographic data are used to test hypotheses about the production and exchange of Hohokam pottery within the Salt River Valley, Arizona. Several pottery varieties based on temper petrology are associated with ten distinct zones of mutually distinguishable rock types within the valley. Hypotheses about the utilization of the rock types for local pottery production at particular location are tested with microprobe assays of the pottery's clay fraction. The associations between clay and temper types distinguish locally produced pottery from imported ceramics. Results from the site of Pueblo Grande are discussed. They indicate a complicated pattern of temper procurements and the exchange of large quantities of plain and redware pots within and between the canal systems situated in the Salt River valley.

Additional information and requirements about abstracts In the reference for your abstract (placed at the top of the page) provide: author, article title,book or journal title, editors, volume numbers, publisher, place and date of publication, and page numbers. Do not write abstracts of encyclopedia or newspaper articles.

Final Project
1. pick an object at Baltimore Museum of Art, the Walters Art Gallery< Homewood Museum, or any other local museum. Turn in your object choice for approval by 3/10. You must be able to look at the object in person. Include the museum name, catalogue or accession number, and object title in your report.
2. Describe briefly how that object was constructed. The technical literature should be used liberally to develop your description of the object and the techniques used to produce it. (1-2 pages will be sufficient)
3. List the materials used to make the object;
identify the materials as organic, inorganic, or a combination.
Determine whether the materials are used as primary support, secondary support, attachments, surface layer, decorative layer, or for other purposes.
4. Select one or a group of the materials identified in part 3 and describe it or them analytically:
Describe the chemical nature of the material(s).
Describe the properties of the materials(s), i.e. aging properties,mechanical properties, etc.
5. Describe the kinds of analytical techniques that could be used to identify the materials(s)you have chosen to analyze in part 4.
6. Four pages should be the maximum length of your Final Project report. You should employ end-notes to list the references (same format as that for the abstracts) used. You should use a minimum of 3 or 4 references. include a photograph`, sketch, Xerox of a published photo, or a museum post card of the chosen object.


Short multiple choice or true-false quizzes will be given during the semester which will primarily cover material from the readings but may also include material from previous lectures. You will be allowed to use your notes (but NOT your neighbor or your neighbor's notes) during the quiz. Each quiz will last no more than 10 minutes of class time.
Grades will be based on:

(1) 25%Abstracts. #1 due 3/3
2 due 3/31
3 due 4/21
(2) 5%Homewood Museum object survey, due 2/17
Baltimore Museum object survey, due 3/10
-you must complete both to receive any credit
(3) 15%Quizzes, #1 will be on 3/10
#2 will be on 4/14
(4) 25%Final project, due 4/28
(5) 30%Final exam, 5/7

Museum Object Survey
The purpose of the museum object survey is to familiarize yourself with analyzing an object form the point of view of construction rather than form. This will help you in completing your final project. All of the object to be analyzed are located either in the Homewood Museum (open Tuesday through Sunday) or in the Baltimore Museum f Art (open Wednesday through Sunday).
The objects are to be analyzed in terms of primary and secondary support structures, attachments, surface and finish. These terms will be explained in class. Answers are not meant to be detailed, but should show that you have an understanding of the purpose of each material used in constructing the object. Use the materials listed on the object labels as s GUIDE ONLY! Trust what you see first. The labels are often incomplete and may even be wrong.

There will be three abstracts (a sample abstract is attached). The articles will be handed out in class. You are to write an abstract for each article. The abstracts must be a MAXIMUM of 250 words in length. The reference should be at the top of the abstract and serve as the title. Do not make up your own title. Use the sample abstract s a guide as to what should be included in the abstract. Please remember that you will be penalized for spelling and grammar errors.
If these requirements are not followed your grade will be lowered. late abstracts will be downgraded one letter grade/week. See the TA BEFORE the due date if you have any problems or would like some help.

Readings are on reserve in MSEL. there are 5 Xerox copies of each reading.
Maryon,H. and H.J. Plenderleith. "Chapter 23: Fine Metal-Work," in A History of Technology, Singer Holmyard and Hall, eds. (1954, Oxford), pp. 623- 662.
Kruger, J. "Corrosion Mechanisms on Historical Monuments," in The Statue of Liberty Restoration, R. Baboian, E.B. Cliver, and E. Lawrence, eds.. NACE October 20-22 1986 pp. 85-92.
Hodges, H. "Chapter 4: Copper and Copper Alloys, " Artifacts: An Introduction to Primitive Technology, 1964, (New York: Frederick A. Praeger), pp. 64-79.
Hodges, H. "Chapter 1: Pottery," Artifacts: An Introduction to Primitive Technology, 1964, (New York: Frederick A. Praeger), pp.19-41.
Brill, R.H. "Ancient glass," Scientific American, Vol. 209 No.5, November 1963, pp. 120-131.
Mayer, Ralph. "Chapter 1: Introductory notes," The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, (New York: Viking Press), pp. 1-31.
Feller, R. L., N. Stolow and E.H. Jones. "Chapter 1: Description of Solvent- type Varnish," On picture varnishes and the their solvents, 1985 (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) pp. 1-6.
Hoadley, R.B. "Chapter 1: The nature of Wood," and Chapter 4: Water and Wood." Understanding Wood, 1980, (Newton, CT: The Taunton Press) pp. 1-17, 67-75.
Paper and Bookmaking
Hunter, Dard. "IV: Early Papermaking Processes and Methods," Papermaking - The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. New York: Dover, 1978.

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