In the early 1980s, a number of trends emerged in museum pest management. While we remained concerned about the damage that the "critters" were doing to our collections, we started becoming equally concerned about the damage that pesticides might do to our collections. We also became increasingly concerned about the effect that these toxic materials may have on ourselves.
With these concerns in mind, I felt that there had to be a better way for dealing with pest problems in museums. A way where the collections would be protected against the pests, while minimizing their exposure to toxic materials. In 1983, after joining the staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Museum Support Center where I had the responsibility for developing and managing preventive conservation programs, including pest management, I attended a meeting of federal pest management coordinators. There were only three of us at that meeting. I was the only museum professional, but I was introduced to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
Integrated Pest Management is an eco-systems approach to dealing with pest problems. Originally developed for the agricultural and urban pest management communities, it is site specific and adaptable to any application. IPM is information-intensive about the pest, its habits, and the environment in which it thrives and survives. Effective IPM programs reduce pest survival through minimizing those elements essential for pest survival (eg. food, moisture and habitat). Components of any IPM plan include monitoring and identification of the pest, inspection, habitat modification, good sanitation, treatment action, evaluation and education. These components are on-going and cyclical. IPM aims to prevent pest problems from occurring while at the same time reducing the use of toxic materials that may adversely affect the environment and the materials being protected against pests.
The following Bibliography is the latest version of one that I have been developing since 1985. It includes the publications that I have found to be most useful in developing museum IPM programs. I have tried to organize it so that you can quickly find those references that you need.
Section I includes publications on pests, pest control and IPM that have been written specifically for the museum, library and archive community. Because the publications directed toward our community are relatively few, Section II contains references on entomology, pests, pest control, and IPM for general and household applications. Much of the information contained in these articles can be adapted and used in developing museum, library, and archival IPM programs. Section III covers the effects that pesticides and other methods of pest eradication have had on museum, library, and archival materials. Since so little is known to date in this area, research is currently underway in many conservation research laboratories; therefore, I expect that this section will be expanded as research progresses in the future. Section IV contains references for Health and Safety publications, references provided primarily by Monona Rossol of Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety. Please note that this section will quickly become obsolete as the laws change and our knowledge of the effects of toxic materials on the human organism broadens.
I have annotated many of those publications that I have found particularly useful. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are publications that I believe should be on every museum, library, and archive's collections-care reference shelves.
No doubt there are other references which have not been included. I encourage those collections care professionals who are tackling pest problems to read as much as possible from as wide a spectrum of publications as possible.
Finally, a number of publications listed here have been referred to me by colleagues working in the museum field. I would be grateful if users of this bibliography share with me resources that they find useful so that I may continue to expand my knowledge of this difficult field.Wendy Claire Jessup
Adams, R.G. 1978. "The First British Infestation of Reesa vespulae (Milliron)(Coleoptera: Dermestidae)", Entomologists Gazette, Vol. 29, April. pp 73-75.
Short article describing a parthenogenic species which is becoming a serious pest of European museums. It feeds on many types of materials, but is especially fond of dried insects and herbarium specimens. This species has been identified as a pest in North American museums and homes.
Brokerhof, A.W. 1989. Control of Fungi and Insects in Objects and Collections of Cultural Value: "a state of the art", Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzook van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap. (address: Gabriel Metsustraat 8, 1071 Amsterdam, P.O. Box 5132, 1007 Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Child, R.E., and D. Pinniger. 1987. "Insect Control in United Kingdom Museums", Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts. London: University of London, Institute of Archaeology, Summer Schools Press.
Child, R.E., and D. Pinniger. 1994. "Insect Trapping in Museums and Historic Houses", Preventive Conservation--Practice, Theory and Research, Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, pp. 129 - 131.
Daniel, V. S. Maekawa, F.D. Preusser, and G. Hanlon. 1993. "Nitrogen Fumigation: a Viable Alternative", Preprints of the ICOM Committee for Conservation 10th Triennial Meeting, International Council of Museums Conservation Committee, Washington, D.C. pp. 863 - 867.
Dawson, J.E. In Press. Dealing with the Insect Problem in Museums: Prevention; Identification and Non-Chemical Control, Canadian Conservation Institute Technical Bulletin.
This will be an excellent publication, outlining preventive control measures. It is currently being revised by Thomas Strang of the Canadian Conservation Institute and will be available in a few years.
* Florian, M.-L. 1986. "The Freezing Process - Effects on Insects and Artifact Materials", Leather Conservation News, Vol. 3, No. 1, Fall. pp 1 - 13, 17.
Excellent review of freezing as a means for controlling insects in collections.
* Florian, M.-L. 1978. "Biodeterioration of Museum Objects: An Ecological Approach to Control and Prevention", British Columbia Museums Association Museum Round-Up, Fall. pp. 35-43.
Reviews the biodeterioration of museum materials by microorganisms and insects. Includes information on the environmental conditions that promote this damage. Contains brief information on insect pest life cycles. Provides brief information on insecticides with accompanying data on the problems of insecticide use. Summarizes preventative measures that can be taken in the museum.
Gilberg, M. 1989. "Inert Atmosphere Fumigation of Museum Objects", Studies in Conservation, Vol. 34, No 2. pp. 80 - 84.
A report on preliminary research about the efficacy of low oxygen atmospheres for pest eradication.
Gilberg, M. 1990. "Inert Atmosphere Disinfestation Using AgelessR Oxygen Scavenger," ICOM Committee for Conservation, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, German Democratic Republic, Preprints, Vol II, pp. 812 - 816.
Gilberg, M. 1991. "The Effects of Low Oxygen Atmospheres on Museum Pests", Studies in Conservation, Vol. 36, No. 2, May, pp. 93 - 98.
A report on research determining that atmospheres low in oxygen but rich in nitrogen (0.4% oxygen, balance nitrogen) have been effective in killing laboratory cultures of webbing clothes moths [Tineola bisselliella (Hummel)], cigarette beetles [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricus)], drugstore beetles [Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus)] and a species of carpet beetle [Anthrenus vorax (Linnaeus)]. This method of eradication looks promising because it is relatively easy to accomplish, nitrogen is not a toxic material, and is considered to have little effect on museum materials.
Gilberg, M. and A. Brokerhof. 1991. "The Control of Insect Pests in Museum Collections: The Effects of Low Temperature on Stegobium paniceum (Linneaus), the Drugstore Beetle", Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Vol. 30, No. 2, Fall, pp. 197 - 201.
A report on research conducted by the authors to test the recommended procedures for freezing as recommended by Florian in her 1986 article, "The Freezing Process - Effects on Insects and Artifact Materials" (listed above). Use of these procedures indicate that they are effective against the drugstore beetle, although when freezing artifacts, care must be taken to account for different rates of cooling by different museum materials.
Gilberg, M. and A. Roach. 1991. "The Use of a Commercial Pheromone Trap for Monitoring Lasioderma serricorne (F.) Infestations in Museum Collections", Studies in Conservation, Vol. 36, No. 4, November. pp. 243 - 247.
Excellent report on the use of successful pheromone traps to locate infestations in a storage area for anthropological materials. Provides evidence for their use as an additional monitoring tool in Integrated Pest Management Programs.
Goldberg, Lisa. 1996. "A History of Pest Control Measures in the Anthropology Collections, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution", Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 23 - 44.
This superior article on the history of pest control techniques employed in this major collection should help all conservators and collections managers understand that a variety of materials may have been used historically on the objects in their care. Provides support for recommendations made in other articles for improved documentation of treatments and the need for health safety precautions for people working with collections.
Guynes, D. 1995. "Managing Museum Collections Without Pests and Chemicals", Grist, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9 - 12.
Hanlon, G., V. Daniel, N. Ravenal and S. Maekawa. 1992. "Dynamic System for Nitrogen Anoxia of Large Museum Objects: A Pest Eradication Case Study," paper presented at the "Second International Conference on Biodeterioration of Cultural Property," Yokohama, Japan. Available from the Getty Conservation Institute.
Hueck, H.J. 1972. "Textile Pests and their Control", in Leene, J.E. (ed.), Textile Conservation, Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 76-97.
Good discussion of the insects and micro-organisms which damage collections. Discusses the three conditions that are required for an infestation to develop: a source of the infestation; the presence of food, and suitable environmental conditions (relative humidity and temperature. The pesticide information included under the heading "Chemical Methods of Control" is outdated.
Jessup, W.C. 1989. "Pest Management Notes: Establishing a Pest Management Program for Museums", MuseNews, Vol. 19, Number 3, July, Oklahoma Museums Association, pp. 5 - 6.
* Jessup, W.C. 1990. "Biological Infestations", National Park Service's Museum Handbook, Part I, MUSEUM COLLECTIONS (Revised September 1990). pp. 5:1 - 5:44.
Very basic overview to IPM as developed for the museum collections of the National Park Service. Indices include information on museum pests, federal and NPS IPM policies, and a few of the more commonly used pesticides for museum collections. Available through: Superintendent of Public Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402-9325. Ask for GPO Stock Number: 024-005-01078-5.
Lambert, F.L., V. Daniel, and F. Preusser. 1992. "The Rate of Absorption of Oxygen by AgelessR; The Utility of an Oxygen Scavenger in Sealed Cases," Studies in Conservation, Vol 37, #4.
Lee, M.W. 1989. Prevention and Treatment of Mold in Library Collections With an Emphasis on Tropical Climates, UNESCO.
This is the best publication on dealing with mold problems that I have encountered. Clear and concise, the emphasis of this slim volume is on the prevention of mold problems through good environmental control, proper sanitation, exhibition and storage configuration. The author also emphasizes low-tech, low cost solutions. For instance, recommendations are made for moderating the environment without relying on expensive mechanical systems. Other sections of the publication cover the identification and physiology of basic mold species and simple methods for treatment.
Linnie, M.J. 1996. "Integrated Pest Management: A proposed Strategy for Natural History Museums", Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 133-143.
McGiffin, R.F. 1985. "A Current Status Report on Fumigation in Museums and Historical Agencies", Technical Report 4, American Association for State and Local History. Nyberg. S. 1987. "The Invasion of the Giant Spore", Preservation Leaflet 5, Southeastern Library Network.
* Peltz, P. and M. Rossol. 1983. Safe Pest Control Procedures for Museum Collections, Center for Occupational Hazards, New York, N.Y.
Provides a good basic overview to the many issues surrounding the problems of pests, pesticides and museum collections. Since this was written, some of the information on pesticides such as federal registration, toxicity, and human health effects may have changed.
* Pinniger, D. B. 1994. Insect Pests in Museums, Archetype, London.
A very short book that contains most of the information necessary to understand the problems of insect pests in museums, the factors that support their survival and methods for control. Great emphasis has been placed on preventive measures. The section on control measures includes methods of physical controls, environmental manipulation, use of atmospheric gases and radiation as well as a review of chemical control techniques. Throughout this section, the author discusses the potential for damage to collections. As this is a British publication, a number of the chemicals described may not be registered in the United States. Other than that, this is a book that every museum, library and archive should have on its shelf.
Pinniger, D. B. 1991. "New Developments in the Detection and Control of Insects which Damage Museum Collections", Biodeterioration Abstracts, Vol. 5, No. 2, June, C.A.B. International, pp. 125 - 130.
Postlethwaite, A.W. 1991, "Achieving Integrated Pest Management with Heightened Sensitivities to Collections Safety and Human Toxicity," paper presented at the International Federation of Library Associations meeting, Arden House, Harriman, N.Y, May 25 - 29, 1991. Available from the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, Museum Support Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Rust, M.K., J.M. Kennedy, V. Daniel, J.R. Druzik and F. Preusser. nd. "The Feasibility of Using Modified Atmospheres to Control Insect Pests in Museums," under review for publication in Studies in Conservation. Until published, available from the Getty Conservation Institute.
Scott, G. 1994, "Moisture, ventilation and mould growth", Conservation--Practice, Theory and Research, Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, International Institute for the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, pp. 149 - 153.
Stansfield, G. 1985. "Pest Control--a collections management problem", Museums Journal, Volume 85, Number 2, September, pp. 97 - 99.
Good review of current pest control practices now used in British museums. Applicable for the United States is the basic information on treatment strategies including non-chemical approaches. Also identifies areas requiring further research.
* Story, K.O. 1985. Approaches to Pest Management in Museums, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Good overview specific to museum insect pest management problems. Reviews 12 primary museum pest insects and gives basic information on life cycles and approaches to control presented in a clear straight forward manner. Also provides review and good overview of various pest management approaches and techniques. IPM is described as are methods for chemical control. The IPM approach is not stressed enough and museums must take care not to turn to sections on chemical control for the quick-fix instead of using non-chemical approaches first, followed if necessary, by a clear decision-making process to identify the appropriate chemical for the environment, the target pest and infested materials. Quality of the illustration is poor. One of the best bibliographies available. Available from the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, Museum Support Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560. Send request on letter head stationery.
Strang, T.J.K. 1992. "A Review of Published Temperatures for the Control of Pest Insects in Museums", Collection Forum, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 41 - 67.
* Strang, T.J.K. and Dawson, J. E. 1991. Controlling Museum Fungal Problems, Technical Bulletin No. 12, Ottawa: Department of Communications, Canadian Conservation Institute.
* Strang, T.J.K. and Dawson, J. E. 1991. Controlling Vertebrate Pests in Museums, Technical Bulletin no. 13. Ottawa: Department of Communications, Canadian Conservation Institute.
Valentin, N., and F. Preusser. 1990. "Insect Control by Inert Gases in Museums, Archives and Libraries", Restaurator 11, pp. 22 - 33.
Valentin, N., M. Lidstrom and F. Preusser. 1990. "Microbial control by low oxygen and low relative humidity environment", Studies in Conservation, Vol. 35, No. 4, November, pp. 222 - 230.
Von Endt, D.W. and W.C. Jessup. 1986. "The Deterioration of Protein Materials in Museums", Biodeterioration 6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Biodeterioration Symposium, C.A.B. International, pp. 332 - 337.
Williams, S.L. and E.A. Walsh. 1989. "Developing Chemical Pest Control Strategies for Museums: Effect of DDVP on a Museum Pest; Behavior of DDVP in Storage Cases", Curator, Vol 32, No.1, pp. 34 - 49, 67 - 69.
* Zycherman, L. and J.R. Schrock (ed). 1988. A Guide to Museum Pest Control, Foundation of the American Institute for the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works and the Association of Systematic Collections.
A long-awaited second edition to Pest Control in Museums: a status report (1980) published by the Association of Systematic Collections. This edition is an improvement over the first, which, although it was a milestone publication that brought to light the problems of museum pests and their control, had a number of inconsistencies, conflicting information, and held little practical use for museum applications. The new edition retains the most important and useful chapters from the first edition ("Institutional and Personal Liability"; "Federal Statutes Governing the Use of Pesticides and an Annotation of Federal Pesticide Regulations"; "Pesticide Terminology" ) and adds an excellent bibliography and very important chapters on the effects of pesticides on museum materials and human health hazards. The chapter on IPM provides an overview to museum IPM, unfortunately it is a bit too basic.
Anon. nd. The Old House Borer, U.S.D.A. Leaflet # 501.
General overview of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.).
Anon. 1984. "Update on Bats: New Techniques for Exclusion; the Bat-Disease Connection; Summary on Bat Management", The IPM Practitioner, Volume XI, No. 11, pp. 1-3.
The new technique for exclusion is the use of polypropylene bird netting as an exclusion device to act as a simple barrier or as a check valve that will permit bats within a structure to exit but deny entry to those outside. "The Bat-Disease Connection" briefly discusses the history of bats as carriers of rabies and other diseases. "The Summary of Bat Management" outlines six steps for bat management and the need to consider the beneficial role that bats play to control insects. Also included is a good bibliography.
Anon. 1979. The Basic Principles of Insect Population Suppression and Management, United States Department of Agriculture Handbook #512.
Anon. 1971. Military Entomology Operations Handbook, Department of the Navy, Army and Air Force.
Contains good information on the biology and behavior of pests. Has excellent photographs and keys to aid in species identification. Provides good information on non-chemical control. Ignore the pesticide information.
Beane, K. 1992. "Managing Pest Birds on Buildings," Common Sense Pest Control, VIII (3), Summer, pp. 6 - 12.
Bennett, G.W. and J.M. Owens (ed). 1986. Advances in Urban Pest Management, Van Nostrand and Reinhold.
Includes excellent discussions on non-chemical components to pest management. Makes the case for the importance of sanitation.
* Borror, D.J., D.M. De Long, and C.A. Triplehorn. 1981. An Introduction to the Study of Insects, fifth edition, Saunders College Publishing.
A good reference with useful keys to the identification of insects. Also provides information on collecting and preserving insect specimens in order to develop a specimen reference collection for the museum pest manager.
Borror, D.J. and R.E. White. 1974. Peterson's Field Guides: Insects, Houghton Mifflin.
Bottrell, D. 1979. Integrated Pest Management, Council on Environmental Quality.
Center for the Integration of the Applied Sciences. 1980. "IPM for Termites", The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 2, #12.
A very short article suggesting alternatives to chemical preventive treatments. Also defines areas of non-chemical approaches that could use further research. Contains a good chart with a summary of different types of IPM services that pest control operators should/could provide for their clients when dealing with subterranean termites: education; monitoring; prevention; advice; repairs; treatments.
Committee on Urban Pest Management. 1980. Urban Pest Management, Academy Press.
* Ebeling, W. 1978. Urban Entomology, University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences.
One of the most useful references for the museum pest manager. Has excellent photographs and information on the biology and behavior of pests. Unfortunately, this book has recently gone out of print. However, copies may still be available in libraries and in university and second-hand bookstores. Well worth finding a copy.
Ebeling. W. and C.F. Forbes. 1988. "Sand Barriers for Subterranean Termite Control". The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 10, # 5, May. pp 1 - 6.
Describes research in using sand as an effective barrier against termites.
Ebeling, W., C.F. Forbes, and S. Ebeling. 1989. "Heat Treatment for Powderpost Beetles", The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 11, no. 9, September, pp. 1 - 4.
Describes using heat (hot air at 49 C/120 F) to eradicate an infestation of powderpost beetles in historic structures belonging to the National Park Service. Also includes information on laboratory tests conducted on efficacy of heat treatment.
Edwards, R. and A.E. Mill. 1986. Termites in Buildings: Their Biology and Control, Rentokil Ltd. W. Sussex, England.
Flint, M.L. and R. van den Bosch. 1981. Introduction to Integrated Pest Management, Plenum Press.
Although primarily aimed toward agriculture, the book provides a good explanation of Integrated Pest Management.
Flint, M.L. and R. van den Bosch. 1977. A Source Book on Integrated Pest Management, International Center for Integrated and Biological Control, University of California. Frantz, S. 1986. "Batproofing Structures with Birdnetting Checkvalves", The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 8, no. 9, September, pp. 1 - 9.
Excellent article on the problems of bats in structures and methods for their exclusion.
Greenhall, A.M. 1982. House Bat Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Department of the Interior, Resource Publication 143.
Excellent publication that emphasizes non-lethal control as preferable to lethal control. Reviews the biology and ecology of bats. Appendices have keys to bats and overview of the different bat species in North America. Provides a lot of information on bat-proofing techniques with designs for traps. Recommendations are made for materials for bat exclusion. Useful publication for museums and historic houses with bat problems. Out of print.
Haverty, M.I. 1976. "Termites", Pest Control, May, pp. 12-17 and 46-49.
Reviews termite ecology and behavior.
Imholte, T.J. 1984. Engineering for Food Safety and Sanitation, Technical Institute of Food Safety.
Jackson, W.B. 1982. "Norway Rat and Allies", Wild Mammals of North America, edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer, The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 1077-1088.
In-depth review of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), the black rat (Rattus rattus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus), biology, ecology and control. Discusses IPM for rats and areas for needed research.
Jackson, W.B,. 1965. "Feeding Patterns in Domestic Rodents", Pest Control, August, pp. 12 and 50.
Review of the feeding habits of rodents.
Lifton, B. 1985. Bug Busters: Getting Rid of Household Pests without Dangerous Chemicals, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Excellent basic down-to-earth approach to getting rid of pests without using pesticides.
* Mallis, A. 1990. Handbook of Pest Control: The Behavior, Life History, and Control of Household Pests, 7th edition, Franzak & Foster.
Excellent reference to keep available. Discusses vertebrate and invertebrate pests, their biology and behavior.
* Moore, H.B. 1979. Wood-Inhabiting Insects in Houses: Their Identification, Biology, Prevention and Control, joint publication of the U.S.D.A., Forest Service and the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Excellent publication discussing the many types of wood-infesting insects. Much emphasis is placed on control through preventive techniques: good building design and construction practices; sanitation and monitoring. Useful for protection of historic houses and museum structures as well as wooden and cellulosic materials. The pesticide information is out of date.
Olkowski, H. 1988. "Stop Eating the Rug! Carpet & Hide Beetles & What To Do About Them", Common Sense Pest Control Quarterly, Vol. 4, no. 1, Winter. pp. 5 - 10.
Good, common sense article on how to minimize carpet and hide beetle damage in the home using least toxic methods of control. Some of the techniques cited may prove useful for adaptation to the museum. Also provides basic information on the biology of these pests. As stated by the author, much of the information is adapted from Mallis' Handbook of Pest Control. Olkowski, H., T. Stewart, W. Olkowski and S. Daar. nd. "Designing and Implementing Integrated Pest Management Programs for Cities", Article available from the Bio-integral Resource Center, P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley, California, 94707.
Although originally written for urban IPM programs, this article defines principles of IPM and the design and implementation processes which can be applied to the museum setting. Especially interesting is the short discussion on the barriers to the adoption of an IPM program and the ways that the authors suggest to combat this resistance.
Olkowski, W. 1988. "Formosan Termite Management: Sand Barriers and Other Techniques". The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 10, #10, October. pp. 6 - 7.
Information to augment the techniques described in the Ebeling and Forbes article above.
Olkowski, W. and H. Olkowski. 1987. "Pests that Damage Paper: Silverfish, Firebrats & Booklice", Common Sense Pest Control Quarterly, Vol. III, No. 1, Winter. pp. 9 - 13.
Provides good information on the biology of these pests and options for developing an integrated program for their control. Available from the Bio-Integral Resource Center, Box 7414, Berkeley, California 94707.
Olkowski, W. and H. Olkowski. 1986. "Clothes Moths... How to Protect Your Woolens", Common Sense Pest Control Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring. pp. 7 - 12.
Good basic article that describes the biology of these pests and some non-toxic methods for their control. Treatment suggestions might be adaptable for use on museum objects, however some suggestions (such as "sunning" or heat treatment of textiles), while appropriate for household articles, may cause other types of problems for museum objects.
Olkowski, W., H. Olkowski and S. Daar. 1988. "What is IPM?", Common Sense Pest Control Quarterly, Vol. 4, no. 3, Summer. pp. 9 - 16.
Provides a good overview to the principles and components of IPM programs. This is also published as a pamphlet from the Bio-Integral Resource Center, Box 7414, Berkeley, California.
* Olkowski, W., H. Olkowski and S. Daar. 1984. Integrated Pest Management for the German Cockroach. Bio-Integral Resource Center, Berkeley, California.
Provides a good overview of the biology and behavior of german cockroaches, Blatella germanica (L.). Suggests trapping as a tool for monitoring roach activity. Provides good information on habitat modification. No reference is made to museums: however, there is much good information in this publication which can be applied to the museum environment. Contains an excellent decision tree on IPM for german cockroach control.
* Olkowski, W., H. Olkowski, and S. Daar. 1984. Integrated Pest Management for the House Mouse, Bio-Integral Resource Center, Berkeley California.
Provides a good overview of house mouse (Mus musculus) biology and identification. Contains an excellent decision tree for a house mouse IPM program. The establishment of a one-mouse action level for interior spaces is excellent, especially for museums, due to the extent and type of damage that a single mouse can cause to collections. Discusses monitoring, trapping and habitat modification. Includes an extensive discussion of rodenticides with a good emphasis on environmental problems caused by pesticides and the problem of mouse resistance to rodenticides. Unfortunately, no mention is made of the secondary pest problem (insects feeding on the carcasses which can then migrate to museum collections) that can develop when poisons are used.
Olkowski, W. and S. Daar. 1986. "Tips on Trapping Rats and Mice and Rodent Proofing Buildings", The IPM Practitioner, Vol. 8, no. 11/12, pp. 8 - 9.
A very short article providing some ideas for success in trapping these rodents. Olkowski, W., S. Daar, and H. Olkowski. 1991. Common-sense Pest Control: Least-toxic solutions for your home, garden, pets and community, The Taunton Press.
This comprehensive book is encyclopedic in scope and contains many ideas that can be adapted for IPM programs in museums.
* Quarles, W. 1992. "Diatomaceous Earth for Pest Control," The IPM Practitioner, Vol. XIV, No. 5/6, May/June, pp. 1 - 11.
Quarles, W. 1992. "Silica Gel for Pest Control," The IPM Practitioner, Vol. XIV, No. 7, July, pp. 1 - 11.
Truman, L.C., G.W. Bennet and W.L. Butts. 1988. Scientific Guide to Pest Control Operations, 4th edition, Harcourt Brace Janovich.
This is the textbook for an excellent correspondence course offered through the Division of Continuing Education, Purdue University. Provides information on pest biology and behavior as well as information that the pest control operator needs to know concerning pesticide regulation, safety, health, and environmental concerns.
Various authors. 1984. Integrated Pest Management Information Manual, National Park Service.
Currently undergoing revision, this manual contains 46 "packages" providing information on IPM strategies for a wide variety of organisms (insects, vertebrates, and plants) considered to be pests by the U.S. National Park Service. Information of use to museum staff are the "packages" on bats in structures, german cockroaches, crickets and grasshoppers, grain and flour insects, house mice, rats, silverfish, and termites and other structural pests. There is a "package" on museum pests which covers dermestid beetles and clothes moths, however the pesticide information is out of date.
Ware, G. 1980. Complete Guide to Pest Control-With and Without Chemicals, Thomson Publications, Fresno, California.
Good information on insects, but the pesticide information is out of date.
Wilson, B.F., 1940. "Lures and Traps to Control Clothes Moths and Carpet Beetles", Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 33, No. 4, August, pp. 651 - 653.
Discusses the results of traps using fish meal or other dried animal tissue as bait for clothes moths and carpet beetles. Provides useful information which can be used for the fabrication of traps used in collection storage areas. However, care must be taken that the fish or bone meal is sterile. Private communication with a scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Stored Products Laboratory has indicated that animal meals may not be sterile. Recommend that the meal be heated in a 200 degree oven to kill any pests prior to use.
Anon. 1988. "Vikane Holds Potential as a Museum Fumigant", The Getty Conservation Institute Newsletter, Volume III, Number I, Winter. p. 6.
Reviews the research to date on the effect of Vikane, (sulfuryl fluoride) on a variety of museum materials.
Bachmann, H-G. 1981. "Prevention of Biodeterioration of Wooden Objects of Art: Influence of Fumigation with Hydrocyanic Acid on Metals", Studies in Conservation, Vol. 26, no. 3, August, pp. 111 - 118.
Baker, M.T., H.D. Burgess, N.E. Binnie, M.R. Derrick and J.R. Druzik. 1990. "Laboratory Fumigation of the Fumigant VikaneR", Preprints of the 9th Triennial Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Conservation, Vol. II, Dresden, pp. 804 - 811.
Daniels, V. and B. Boyd. 1986. "The Yellowing of Thymol in the Display of Prints", Studies in Conservation, Vol. 31, no. 4, November. pp. 156 - 158.
* Daniel, V., S. Maekawa and F.D. Preusser. 1993. "Nitrogen fumigation: a viable alternative. Preprints of the ICOM Committee for Conservation 10th Triennial Meeting, pp. 863-867.
Dawson, J.E. 1988. "The Effects of Insecticides on Museum Artifacts and Materials", A Guide to Museum Pest Control, edited by Zycherman and Schrock (listed under Pest Control: Museum).
Derrick, M.R., H.D. Burgess, M.T. Baker, and N.E. Binnie. 1990. "Sulfuryl Fluoride (Vikane): A Review of its use as a Fumigant", Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, vol. 29, pp. 77 - 90. Florian, M.-L. 1987. "The effect on artifact materials of the fumigant ethylene oxide and freezing used in insect control", ICOM Committee for Conservation, 8th Triennial Meeting, pp. 199 - 208.
Glastrup, J. 1987. "Insecticide analysis by gas chromatography in the stores of the Danish National Museum's ethnographic collections", Studies in Conservation, Volume 32, No. 2, May. pp 59 - 64.
Cites data from a study of residual pesticides in collections. Makes the case for case in using protective gear when handling ethnographic objects which might have been treated with pesticides and remain potentially hazardous.
* Hawks, C.A. and S. Williams. 1986. "Arsenic in Natural History Collections", Leather Conservation News, volume 2, number two, Spring, pp 1 - 4.
This short article provides a brief history to the uses of arsenic and other toxic materials such as mercury and strychnine in the preparation and preservation of natural science collections against pests. It also provides important cautions about handling old museum specimens (natural science as well as anthropological materials) due to the potential residues of these toxic materials on the specimens. Included in the article are the directions for testing specimens to determine if they are contaminated.
* Swope, J. (ed.). 1984. "Arsenic in Taxidermy Specimens", Rocky Mountain Regional Conservation Center News, Vol. 1, No. 4, Spring, p. 1.
Very brief discussion of this issue with useful recommendations on how to safely work around taxidermy specimens.
Williams, S.L. and C.A. Hawks. 1987. "History of Preparation Materials Used for Recent Mammal Specimens", Mammal Collection Management, Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock. pp. 21 - 49.
Williams, S.L., C.A. Hawks and S.G. Weber. 1986. "Considerations in the Use of DDVP Resin Strips for Insect Control in Biological Research Collections", Biodeterioration VI Proceedings of the Sixth International Biodeterioration Symposium, C.A.B. International Mycological Institute. pp. 344 - 50.
Williams, S.L., E.A. Walsh, and S.G. Weber 1989. "Developing Chemical Pest Control Strategies for Museums: Effect of DDVP on Museum Materials", Curator, Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 49 - 69.
ACTS FACTS, Arts, Crafts, and Theater Safety, New York.
A monthly newsletter updating health and safety regulations and research affecting the arts. Available from ACTS, Attn: M. Rossol, 181 Thompson Street, #23, New York, New York 10012. $15/year for 12 issues.
Arts Hazards News , Center for Safety in the Arts, New York.
A newsletter covering various topics related to health and safety in the arts. Each year they publish a "Special Resources Issue" which lists occupational clinics, OSHA offices and other agencies. Available from CSA, 5 Beekman Street, 10th floor. New York, New York 10038. $24/year for 5 issues.
Best's Safety Directory , A.M. Best Company, 2 volumes, Ambest Road, Oldwick, N.J. 08858. Tel:201-439-2200.
Sources safety equipment and supplies. Published yearly.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6500 Glenway Ave., Bldg. D-7, Cincinnati, Ohio 45211-4438. Tel: 513-661-7881.
1. Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices 2. Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice 3. The Documentation of TLVs and BEIs
Publications 1 and 2 above are updated annually.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for performance of safety and protective equipment. For example, ANSI Z358.1-1990 for eye wash fountains and emergency showers or ANSI Z87.1-1989 for face and eye protection.
Available from ANSI, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018. Tel: 212-642-4900.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers' ASHRAE 62-1989 "Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality."
Can be obtained from ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30329. Tel: 404-636-8400.
Clark, N., T. Cutter and J.-A. McGrane. 1980. Ventilation: A Practical Guide, Center for Safety in the Arts, New York.
A guide to basic ventilation principles and step-by-step guidance for those who wish to evaluate, design, and build and adequate ventilation system. Available from Center for Safety in the Arts. Hawley, G. 1993. Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th edition, revised by Sax, N. Irving and Lewis, Sr. Richard, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co.
Also available from the ACGIH. Call Van Nostrand-Reinhold at 1-800-842-3636 for publications catalog.
Hayes, W.J., Jr., and E.R. Laws, Jr. (eds.) 1991. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 3 volumes, Academic Press.
Covers general principles of pesticide toxicology, effects of pesticide classes, and data on 256 compounds that have documented human effects.
* Howie, F. (ed.) 1987. Safety in Museums and Galleries, Butterworths.
A must for every museum's library. While many of the chapters relate specifically to safety and health programs established under British laws for British museums, the general discussions of the variety of the hazards associated with museum work are useful for museums all over the world. Much good information on hazards and precautions. Available from Butterworths, 80 Montvale Avenue, Stoneham, Massachusetts 02180. Tel: 800-366-2665.
International Labour Organization. In press. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 4th revised edition, 4 volumes, McGraw Hill, New York.
Covers all aspects of occupational health including art and conservation. Projected publication at the end of 1995.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts, 02169. Tel: 800-344-3555. Obtain catalog of the 270 codes. Choose pertinent codes such as NFPA#30. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. 1981-2. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, US Department of Health and Human Services.
1918-2 Edition plus yearly supplements. Reproduced by the National Technical Information Services, Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161.
Patty, F. (ed.) Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. I, 4th edition, Part A and B, (1991), Vol. II, Parts A to F, (1993-4, cost $995), Vol. III, Parts A and B (1982), Interscience Publishers, New York.
Also available from the ACGIH. Call 513-661-7881 for publications catalog.
Rossol, M. 1994. The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, 2nd edition, Allworth Press, New York.
A guide to safety and OSHA compliance for those using paints, pigments, dyes, metals, solvents, and other art and craft materials. Available from Allworth Press, 10 East 23 Street, New York, New York 10010.
Sax, N.I. and R.J. Lewis, Sr. 1992. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 8th edition, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co.
Plus 1993 update (cost: $400). Also available from the ACGIH. Call Van Nostrand-Reinhold at 1-800-842-3636 for publications catalog.
The MSDS Pocket Dictionary , Genium Publishing Corporation, Schenectady. Revised, 1994.
A dictionary of terms used on Material Safety Data Sheets. They also have booklets in Spanish. Booklets on the new 16 part MSDSs, WHMIS, and many other relevant subjects. For a publication list contact Genium Publishing at 1145 Catalyn Street, Schenectady, N.Y. 12303-1836. Tel: 518-377-8854.
The WHMIS Handbook , Corpus Information Services, 1450 Don Mills Road, Don Mills, Ontario M3B 2X7. Tel: 416-445-6641.
A well-written, page-tabbed guide to WHMIS.
Watterson, A. 1988. Pesticide Users' Health and Safety Handbook: An International Guide, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
1. First people must determine if they are regulated under state or federal OSHA rules. State regulated people should contact their state OSHA for publications and compliance materials. Those under the federal law should have sections of the Code of Federal regulations (CFR) that applies to their work. These are 29 CFR 1900-1910 (General Industry Standards) and 29 CFR 1926 (Construction Standards). Call your local OSHA Office for obtaining copies.
Applicable rules include: Ethylene Oxide Standard, 1910.1047, Hazard Communication Standard 1910.1200, Respiratory Protection 1910.134, other personal protective equipment 191.132-138, etc.
2. Also available for $18.00 from the Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Tel: 202-512-1800 [Washington, D.C.]).
"Hazard Communication -- A Compliance Kit" OSHA 3104, GPO Order No. 929-022-00000-9, a step-by-step guide to compliance.
3. For general OSHA compliance for small businesses:
"OSHA Handbook for Small Businesses," U.S. Department of Labor, 1993, OSHA No.2209 (revised). Ask for GPO order #029-016-001-441, enclose a check for $4.00 made out to Superintendent of Documents, and mail to P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954.
WHMIS Core Material: A Resource Manual for the Application and Implementation of WHMIS . Contact the Community Relations Department, Worker's Compensation Board of BC, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6.
Arts, Crafts and Theater Safety (address above) a source of articles and data sheets including:
D-Limonene Understanding the MSDS Using TLVs in Common Sense Rick Assessment (AIC Newsletter)
Bashin, B.J. 1989. "Bug Bomb Fallout", Harrowsmith, May/June.
Fenn, J. 1987. "Danger in the Discovery Room", Museum Quarterly: The Journal of the Ontario Museums Association, Vol. 16, No. 2, Summer. pp. 8 - 11, 26.
Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets, New Jersey Department of Health, CN 368, Trenton, N.J. 08625-0368. Tel: 609-984-2202.
Excellent fact sheets on several hundred individual chemicals which list hazards, physical constants, regulatory requirements and odor thresholds when known.
Knapp, T. 1987. "Ethylene Oxide Health and Safety Update", Conserve O Gram, National Park Service.
Documents the current situation (human toxicity and collections reactivity) of this fumigant which was once used extensively as a fumigant against insects and mold.
Linnie, M.J. 1990. "Conservation: Pest Control in Museums - The Use of Chemicals and Associated Health Problems", International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol 9. pp. 419 - 433.
Provides an overview to many of the chemicals currently used in museums and their documented health effects.
Rossol, M. 1994. "More than We Want to Know About OSHA," for the panel on Arsenic and Old Lace, for the American Association of Museum's Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington.
Rossol, M. and W.C. Jessup 1996. "No Magic Bullets: Ethical Considerations for Pest Management Strategies", Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol. 15. No. 2, pp. 145-168.
This paper provides a cohesive and authoritative understanding of the ethical, legal, and regulatory aspects of pest management which must be considered when selecting treatments. Many biocides used in museums have been categorized by chemical class. Also included are some of the hazards associated with their use, the OSHA rules which must be followed, and the guarantees and assurances which should be written into contracts with commercial pest control operators.