SYNTHETIC FILL MATERIALS FOR SKIN, LEATHER, AND FURS
1. Nylon fun furs can be dyed with acid or premetalized dyes according to the manufacturer's directions at pH 5.5 and pH 7 or slightly above, respectively. The dyed fabric must be subjected to an after-scour at 140�F.
Chludzinski, G. R.1997. Personal communication. Chemical engineer and proprietor of Conservator's Products Co., Chatham, N.J.
Dignard, C.1992. Tear repair of skins with minimal access to their backs: The treatment of a kayak. Leather Conservation News7(2):1–8.
Fogle, S., and T.Raphael. 1984. Leather conservation terminology. Leather Conservation News1(4):39–51.
Jones, F.1996. IIC-CG seminar vegetable-tanned leather review. IIC-CG Bulletin21(2):5–8.
Kaminitz, M., and J.Levinson. 1988. The conservation of ethnographic skin objects at the American Museum of Natural History. Leather Conservation News5(1):1–7.
Larsen, E. B.1981. Moulding and casting of museum objects. Copenhagen: School of Conservation, the Royal Danish Art Academy.
Larsen, R., M.Vest, and K.Nielsen. 1993. The determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperature) of historical leather by Micro Hot Table technique. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists77:151–56.
O'Donnell, A.1996. Personal communication. Conservator in private practice, Portsmouth, R.I.
Wolthman, K.1996. Personal communication. Synthesis chemist, Rohm and Haas Laboratories.
Young, G.1997. Personal communication. Conservation scientist, Analytical Research Laboratory, Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Young, G.1990. Microscopical hydrothermal stability measurements of skin and semi-tanned leather. In ICOM Committee for Conservation preprints, 9th Triennial Meeting, Dresden, Germany. Paris: ICOM. 3:626–31.
ASTM. 1980. Standard definitions of terms relating to leather, D 1517-80. In Annual book of ASTM standards. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Belitz, L.1970. Step-by-step: Brain-tanning the Sioux way. Pine Ridge, S.D.: Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Boulton, A.1986. The examination, treatment and analysis of a pair of boots from the Aleutian Islands including a note about possible pesticide contamination. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 25:1–13.
Calnan, C.1991. The aging of vegetable-tanned leather in response to variations in climatic conditions. In Leather: Its composition and changes with time, eds.C.Calnan and B.Haines. Northamptonshire, Eng.: Leather Conservation Center. 41–50.
Calnan, C., R.Selm, and B.Haines. 1990. Conservation of automobile and carriage leathers. Leather Conservation News7(1):7–8.
Clark, T.1985. Conservation of an aboriginal wallaby skin water bag. In Recent advances in leather conservation, ed.S.Fogle, T.Raphael, and K.Singley. Washington, D.C.: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation. 62–64.
Collins, C.1986. Conservation techniques for ethnographic leather artifacts: Application to the Paul Kane Collection. Leather Conservation News3(1):14–16.
Cruikshank, P.1987. The conservation of a model Eskimo kayak involving the treatment of gut. Leather Conservation News4(1):1–12.
Down, J., M.MacDonald, J.Tetreault, and S.Williams. 1992. Adhesives testing at the Canadian Conservation Institute: An evaluation of selected poly(vinyl acetate) and acrylic adhesives. Environment and Deterioration Report No. 1603. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Conservation Institute.
Fogle, S.1984. Mending and filling losses in two chinese lanterns. In Recent advances in leather conservation. Washington, D.C.: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation.
Fogle, S., T.Raphael, and K.Singley. 1985. Recent advances in leather conservation. Washington, D.C.: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation.
Haines, B.1984. The conservation of leather bookbindings. In Adhesives and consolidants, ed.N. S.Bromelle, E. M.Pye, P.Smith, and G.Thomson. London: International Institute for Conservation. 50–54.
Haines, B.1985. The strength of skin. In Recent advances in leather conservation. Washington, D.C.: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation. 10–12.
Haines, B.1987. Shrinkage temperature in collagen fibres. Leather Conservation News, 3(2):1–5.
Haines, B.1991. The structure of collagen. In Leather: Its composition and changes with time, ed.C.Calnan and B.Haines. Northamptonshire, Eng.: Leather Conservation Center. 5–9.
Hatchfield, P.1986. Note on a fill material for water sensitive objects. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 25:93–96.
Kite, M.1992. Skin-related materials incorporated into textile objects. In Conservation of leather craft and related objects, ed.M.Kite et al. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. 33–35.
Kite, M.1992. Gut, membrane parchment and gelatine incorporated into textile objects. Paper Conservator16:98–105.
Krahn, A.1987. Conservation: Skin and native-tanned leather. American Indian Art Magazine (Spring):44–51.
Museo d'Arte Contemporanea. 1990. Mario Merz Exhibit Catalogue. A.Barzel, ed.Prado, Italy: Museo d'Arte Contemporanea.
New England Tanners Club. 1983. Leather glossary. In Leather facts. Peabody, Mass.: New England Tanners Club.
Peacock, E.1983. The conservation and restoration of some Anglo-Scandinavian leather shoes. Conservator7:19–23.
Pence, R. J.1966. Analyzing fur damage with a microscope. Circular of California Agricultural Experimental Stations Extension Service, 541:1–18.
Plenderleith, H.1971. The conservation of antiquities and works of art. London: Oxford University Press.
Rahme, L.1990. Traditional tanning and skin sewing. Leather Conservation News7(1):1–5.
Raphael, T.1985. The completion of missing areas. In Recent advances in leather conservation, ed.S.Fogle, T.Raphael, and K.Singley. Washington, D.C.: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation.
Raphael, T.1986. Ethnographic skin and leather products: A call for conservative treatment. In Symposium '86: The care and preservation of ethnographic materials, ed.R.Barclay et al. Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute. 68–72.
Raphael, T.1993. The care of leather and skin products: A curatorial guide. Leather Conservation News9:1–15.
Reed, R.1972. Ancient skins, parchments, and leathers. London: Seminar Press.
Reed, R., ed.1966. Science for students of leather technology. London: Seminar Press.
Rose, C., and D. W.VonEndt, eds.1984. Protein chemistry for conservators. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation.
Selm, R.1991. The conservation of upholstery leather—An evaluation of materials and techniques. In Conservation of leather in transport collections: UKIC conference restoration '91. London: UKIC.
Shaffer, E.1974. Properties and preservation of ethnographical semi-tanned leather. Studies in Conservation19:66–75.
Spicer, G.1995. Supporting tears in leather. Leather Conservation News, 11(1, 2):4–6.
Stambolov, T.1969. Manufacture, deterioration and preservation of leather: A literature survey of theoretical aspects and ancient techniques. ICOM. Amsterdam: Central Research Laboratory.
Stone, T.1989. The conservation of skin and semi-tanned leather at the CCI: 3 case histories. In Postprints of the ICOM International Leather and Parchment sSmposium. Offenbach, Germany. Ottawa, Canada: ICOM. 18–23.
Stone, T.1989. The Inuit skin preparation workshop. Leather Conservation News. 6(1):1–7.
Storch, P.1986. A non-sewn alternative to the inlay technique: Stabilizing a native-tanned historic vest. Leather Conservation News3(1):17.
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Vuori, J.1985. A possible adhesive for native tanned skin. Leather Conservation News2(1):6.
Waterer, J.1972. A novel method for the conservation of fragile leathers. Studies in Conservation17:126–30.
Waterer, J.1968. Glossary of leather terms. In Leather craftsmanship. New York: Praeger. 24–20.
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Williams, S. L.1991. Variability in measurements resulting from microscopic analyses of collagen shrinkage-temperature. Collection Forum. 7(2): 53–63.
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SOURCES OF MATERIALSAcryloid F-10
A butyl methacrylate homopolymer supplied in 40% solids in mineral thinner: Amsco F at 9:1, manufactured by Rohm and Haas. Amsco F is characterized as a C-8 aromatic with a flash point of 150�F. Acryloid F-10 has a glass transition temperature of 20�C.
Conservation Materials, Ltd., P.O. Box 2884, Sparks, Nev. 89431BEVA 371 film
A mixture of DuPont Elvax 150 (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer), Allied A-C 400 (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer), BASF Laropol K80 (cyclohexanone resin), Hercules Cellolyn 21 (phthalate ester of hydrobietyl alcohol), and paraffin (petrolatum)
Conservator's Products, Conservation Materials, Ltd., P.O. Box 2884, Sparks, Nev. 89431Bocour Magna Colors
Pigments in Acryloid F-10
Bocour Artist Colors, Inc., Garnerville, N.Y.Dry pigments
Available at art supply stores
For the greatest degree of success, an ERSA heated spatula with a small infilling spatula is suggested. Manufactured by G. Engelbrecht, Germany.
Olaf Unsoeld, Kolner L.L.C., 23 Grant Ave., New Providence, N.J. 07974Hollytex #3529.
Non-woven polyester fabric
Ahlstrom Filtration Inc., Talas, N. Y.Reemay
Spun-bonded polyester fabric Manufactured by DuPont
Conservation Materials, P.O. Box 2884, Sparks, Nev. 89431Rowney Cryla Artist Colors
Acrylic emulsion paints
Daler-Rowney, Available at art supply storesSynthetic nylon fur with four-way stretch spandex backing
18 denier nylon hair with woven nylon wrapped LycraTM backing
National Fiber Technologies, Ltd., 300 Canal St., Lawrence, Mass. 018403M glass microspheres K-15
Unicellular soda lime borosilicate glass microspheres, 3M Corp.
Conservation Materials, P.O. Box 2884, Sparks, Nev. 89431Winsor & Newton gouache
Winsor & Newton, Available at art supply stores
LINDA NIEUWENHUIZEN received a B.A. in art history and archaeology from the University of Missouri at Columbia in 1986 and an M.A. and certificate of advanced study from the State University College at Buffalo, N.Y. in 1990. After finishing her training, she interned and then gained employment at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, where she worked until 1996. She is an adjunct professor at the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, where she has taught since 1992, and is in private practice specializing in ethnographic objects and natural science materials. Address: Give Me a Break Conservation Services, Inc., 48-20 Vernon Blvd., Ste. 2, Long Island City, N.Y. 11101.