JAIC 1991, Volume 30, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 145 to 162)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1991, Volume 30, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 145 to 162)





Miscellaneous Properties of Celluloid


Brady, G. S., and H. R.Clauser. 1977. Materials handbook, 11th ed.New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chao, H.1934. The reduction of the viscosity of nitro-cellulose solutions by ammonia. Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, no. 4236.

Clark, D. T.1981. The modification, degradation, & synthesis of polymer surfaces studied by ESCA. American Chemical Society Series162:247–91.

DuBois, J. H.1972. Plastics history U.S.A.Boston: Cahners Publication Co., Inc.

Encyclopedia Americana. International edition. Danbury, Cann: Grolier1982.

Encyclopedia of chemical technology, 3d ed.1982. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 22:709–62.

Friedel, R.1977. Men, materials, and ideas: A history of celluloid. Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University.

Hercules Powder Co. 1955. Nitrocellulose. Wilmington, Del: Hercules Powder Co.

Kaufman, M.1963. The first century of plastics. London, England: Crown Press.

Lundberg, R.1983. Personal communication.

Miles, F. D.1955. Cellulose nitrate. London: Oliver and Boyd.

Petitpas, T. and Mathieu, M.1946. The reactions occurring in the gelatinization of the nitrocelluloses. Transactions of the Faraday Society42B(17):525.

Saunders, K. J.1966. The identification of plastics and rubbers. New York: Barnes and Noble.

Saunders, K.J., 1973. Organic polymer chemistry. London, England: Chapman and Hall.

Selwitz, C. M.1988. Cellulose nitrate in conservation. Marina del Rey, Calif.: J. Paul Getty Trust.

Sirkis, L.1982. The history, deterioration and conservation of cellulose nitrate and other early plastic objects. Masters Thesis. Institute of Archaeology, University of London.

Worden. 1911. Nitrocellulose industry. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Van Nostrand.


Anderson, B. W.1971. Gem testing, 8th ed.London: Butterworths. 324.

Bernadou, J. B.1901. Smokeless powder, nitrocellulose and theory of the cellulose molecule. New York: J. Wiley and Sons.

Bikales, N. M., and L.Segal. 1971. Cellulose and cellulose derivatives. Part 5. New York: Wiley Interscience.

Blaker, R., R.Badger, and R.Noyes. 1947. Molecular properties of nitrocellulose II: Studies of molecular heterogeny. Journal of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry51(2): 574–79.

Celanese Celluloid Corp.1942. Cellulose plastics in war and industry. Celanese Celluloid Corp. Publication. New York

Darwualia, E. H., S. M.Moonim, and J. C.Arthur. 1971. Photooxidation of chemically modified celluloses and free radical formation. Textile Research Journal42:592–95.

DeCroes, G. C., and J. W.Tamblyn. 1952. Protection of cellulose esters against breakdown by heat and light. Modern Plastics29:127–89.

DeCroes, G. C., and J. W.Tamblyn. 1953. Stabilization of cellulose esters. National Bureau of Standards, circ. no. 525. 171–90.

Desai, R. L., and J. A.Shields. 1969. A new surface effect in photodegradation of cellulose. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science31(4):585.

DuBois, J. H.1942. Plastics. Chicago: American Technological Society Publication. 63–84.

Gordon, R. W.1957. Dielectric relocation of cellulose nitrate and cellulose. Ph.D. diss., McGill University.

Haslam, J., H. A.Willis, and D.C.M.Squirrel. 1981. Identification and analysis of plastics, 2d ed.London: John Wiley and Sons.

Hercules Powder Co. 1939. Nitrocellulose. Wilmington, Del.: Hercules Powder Co.

Husbands, V., J.Cloonan, and G.Keen. 1968. The examination of toys for celluloid, Journal of the Association of Public Analysts6(3):85–88.

ICCROM. 1963. Synthetic materials used in the conservation of cultural property. Rome: International Center for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. 29.

Ito, K.1971. Mechanics of upper and lower yield points of amorphous polymer solids. Transaction of the Society of Rheology15(3):389–413.

Jilk, L.1938. The effect of light on cellulose nitrate I. Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota.

Johnson, M.1976. Nitrocellulose as a conservation hazard. AIC preprints, 4th Annual Meeting, American Institute for Conservation, Washington, D.C.66–75.

Jortner, J.1959. Photochemistry of cellulose acetate. Journal of Polymer Science37:199–214.

Kagarise, R. E., and Weinberger, L. A.Infrared spectra of plastics and resins. NRL Report 4369.

Kelly, R. R.1969. Wood types 1828–1900. New York: Van Nostrand.

Kenyon, W. O.1935. A study of alkaline decomposition of cellulose nitrate. Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester.

Kline, G. M.1962. High polymers, Vol 12. Analytical chemistry of polymers, part III. New York: Interscience.

Koob, S. P.1982. The instability of cellulose nitrate adhesives. The Conservator (6):31–34.

Lewin, J. B.1968. In Film-forming compounds, part 3, vol. 1, ed.R.Myers and J.Long. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 108–51.

Masselon, Roberts, and Cillard. 1912. Celluloid: Its manufacture, applications, and substitutes. Trans. H. H.Hodgson. London: Charles Griffin and Co. Ltd.

Mustafa, A., and A. F.Dawoud. 1966. Stabilization of starch and cellulose nitrates. Explosivstoffe14(11): 241–47.

Neff, S. B., and R. J.Haughwout. 1969. Cellulosics. Plastics World27(8).

Patrick, R. L.1969. Adhesion and adhesives. Vol. 2: Materials. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.471–75.

Roff, W. J., J. R.Scott, and J.Pacitti. 1971. Fibres, films, plastics, and rubbers. London: Butterworths. 159–63.

Rosenberger, H. M., and C. J.Shoemaker. 1959. Infrared determination of nitrocellulose in mixtures of cellulose resins. Analytical Chemistry (31):1315.

Rothstein, E. C.1968. Evaluating UV absorbers: Clear coatings. Paint and Varnish Products58(2): 39–43.

Sarker, N., and G. D.Rose. 1971. Comments on the degradation of aqueous solutions of methycellulose. Journal of Paint Technology43(558):69–72.

Sax, N. I.1979. Dangerous properties of industrial materials, 5th ed.New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 475.

Schick, P. E.1943. A study of the mechanics of film formation in the spray-coating of paper with nitrocellulose lacquers. Ph.D. diss., Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, Wisc.

Scrutton, R. F.1969. Vibration and fractures in machining plastics. Society of Plastic, England, Annual Technical Conference Journal25(7):52–54.

Simonds, H. R.1939. Industrial plastics. New York: Pitman Publication Corp. 1–53.

Simonds, H. R., and C.Ellis. 1943. Handbook of plastics. New York: Van Nostrand. 160–73, 173–76, 231.

Tichenor, R. L.1946. The photochemical decomposition of cellulose acetate-butyrate. Journal of Polymer Science1:217.

Urbanski, T.1968. Some remarks to pulping and stabilization of nitrocellulose. Explosivstoffe16(9):217.

Winding, C. C., and R. L.Hasche. 1974. Plastics. New York: McGraw-Hill. 97–105.

Winslow, F. H., and W. L.Hawkins. 1967. Some weathering characteristics of plastics. Modern Plastics44(8):141–42.


JULIE A. REILLY received a B.A. in anthropology from Towson State University and an M.A. in anthropology from the George Washington University where she studied applied sciences and instrumental analysis and completed a series of graduate conservation courses. She completed internships and worked as a contract conservator at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. She worked as archaeological conservator for the National Park Service and as objects conservator for the Colonial Willamsburg Foundation. She is currently working as objects conservator for the H. F. duPont Winterthur Museum and as adjunct professor in the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation Program. Address: Conservation Division, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware 19735.

Copyright � 1991 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works