JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 117 to 131)
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Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 1990, Volume 29, Number 2, Article 2 (pp. 117 to 131)




1. These watermarks are also referred to as “Shadecraft” (American Paper and Pulp Association), “Shaded” (Plank Dandy Roll Company), “Shadow” (Fox River Paper Company), and “Light-and-shade” (Dard Hunter).

2. Both beta and Grenz radiography will record low-density materials, such as paper, on film. During this research, Grenz radiography was used because of the availability of equipment. The use of Grenz radiography also allows for shorter exposure times, larger film sizes, and sharper film images than does beta radiography.

3. The determination of epoxy resins through the detection of nitrogen, p. 250; the determination of formaldehyde using phloroglucinol, p. 254; the determination of urea- or melamine-formaldehyde using fuschsin hypochloride, p. 255; and the determination of melamine using infrared spectrometry, p. 263.

4. The determination of groundwood using phloroglucinol (TAPPI #T-401), p. 73; the determination of the presence of starch using the iodine test, p. 93; the determination of the presence of gelatin using the Biuret test, p. 103; the determination of the presence of alum using the aluminon test, p. 217.

5. Chemically applying laid and chain lines has been done in the past. However, clients tend to prefer the texture of sheets with traditionally produced laid and chain lines. Therefore, chemically produced laid and chain lines are not very common.


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Skofronick, B. D., and F.V.E.Vaurio. 1966. Chemical watermark applied on finished paper. U.S. Patent #3,293,062. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wisconsin. Vaurio, F.V.E.1963. Paper product with watermark and process therefor. U.S. Patent #3,085,898. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.

Vaurio, F.V.E.1964. Paper product with chemical watermark and means for making same. U.S. Patent #3,140,959. Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wis.

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Weiner, J., and K.Mirkes. 1972. Watermarking. Bibliographic Series, no. 257. Appleton, Wis. Institute of Paper Chemistry.


APPA. 1965. Watermark. In Dictionary of paper. New York: American Paper and Pulp Association.

Briquet, C. M.1923. Dictionaire historique des marques du papier, vols.1–4. 2d ed.Leipzig: Karl W. Hiersemann.

Gravell, T. L.1979. A catalogue of American watermarks, 1690–1835. New York: Garland Publishing.

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Opaline dry cleaning pad, Patent #2, 287, 477

Durasol Chemical Co., Boston, Mass.

Kodak Wratten deep blue gelatin filter #47, 75 � 75mm (3 � 3 in), catalog number 149 5787

Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.

Kneaded Eraser #1225, Pink Pearl #101 eraser

Eberhard Faber, Inc., Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

Artgum #211 eraser, Magic Rub #1954 eraser

Faber Castell, Lewisburg, Tenn.

Staedtler Mars Plastic eraser #526–52

Staedtler Mars, Nuremberg, West Germany

Groomstick natural rubber, molecular trap eraser

Talas (distributor), New York, N.Y.

Methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate, in menthanol and trichlorotrifluoroethane, (Wei T'o Solution No. 2)

Wei T'o Associates, Matteson, Ill.


STEPHANIE WATKINS is a Getty fellow in paper conservation at the Northeast Document Conservation Center in Andover, Massachusetts. She previously worked at the Intermuseum Laboratory in Oberlin, Ohio and interned at the Library of Congress, Phillips Collection, International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, and Dard Hunter Paper Museum. She has received a master's degree in conservation from the State University College at Buffalo, and a bachelor's degree in fine art from Virginia Commonwealth University and had a Guggenheim student fellowship. Her interest in modern processes and materials is stimulated by her background in the fine arts. Address: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 100 Brickstone Square, Andover, Massachusetts 01810.

Copyright � 1990 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works