DARKENING OF PAPER FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO VISIBLE AND NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
S. B. Lee, J. Bogaard, & R. L. Feller
R. A.Stillings and R. J.Van Nostrand. “The Action of Ultraviolet Light upon Cellulose.”J. Am. Chem. Soc., 661944, pp. 753–760.
H. F.LaunerW. K.Wilson. “The Photochemistry of Cellulose. Effects of Water Vapor and Oxygen in the Far and Near Ultraviolet Regions.”J. Am. Chem. Soc., 71, 1949, pp. 958–962.
G. S.Egerton. “The Mechanism of the Photochemical Degradation of Textile Materials.”J. Soc. Dyers and Colourists, 65, 1949, pp. 764–780.
R. H.MacClaren, F. L.Wells, J. V.Rosequist, and D. F.Ingerick. “Brightness Reversion of Cellulose Exposed to Ultraviolet Light.”Tappi, 45, 1968, pp. 789–793.
This subject has been reviewed by R. L.Feller, S. B.Lee and J.Bogaard, “The Darkening and Bleaching of Paper by Various Wavelengths in the Visible and Ultraviolet,” Postprints, The Book and Paper Group, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, the tenth annual meeting, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1982. pp. 26–30.
H. F.Launer and W. K.Wilson. “Photochemical Stability of Papers.”J. Research National Bureau of Standards, 30, 1943, pp. 55–74.
W. R.MacMillan, M.A. Sc.Thesis, “Color Reversion in Oxidized Cellulose.” Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Canada, 1958.
H. W.Giertz. “The Yellowing of Pulp.”Svensk Papperstid., 48, No. 13, 1945, pp. 317–323
For further discussion of the relationship of Tappi brightness and the use of K/S values see R. L. Feller, “Comments on the Measurement of ‘Yellowness’ in Pulp and Paper”, The Book and Paper Group Annual (IIC), 6, 1987, pp. 40–51.
The expression “brightness reversion” has often been used for darkening that occurs after various treatments that lead to brightening. We are not in favor of this terminology because, if one component is bleached during a treatment, and another component is responsible for the subsequent discoloration, the paper may not have reverted to its original color or composition of chromophoric groups. It is important for the research laboratory to begin to ask: what is responsible for the color before treatment and what is responsible for the change that occurs as the immediate result of treatment, that which arises after treatment?
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1983, p. D–155 (63rd Edition).
Tappi Standard T509.
M.Hey. “The Washing and Aqueous Deacidification of Paper”, The Paper Conservator, Vol. 4, 1979, pp. 66–80.
S. B.Lee and R. L.Feller. “Influence of the Hemicellulose Fraction on Thermal and Photochemical Discoloration of Paper.”Advances in Chemistry Series, No. 212, Washington, D.C., ACS, 1986, pp. 377–386.
L. E.Wise, M.Murphy and A. A.D'Addieco, “Chlorite Holocellulose, Its Fractionation and Bearing on Summative Wood Analysis and on Studies on the Hemicelluloses.”Paper Trade J., 122, No. 2, 1946, pp. 35–43.