Following fixing, albumen prints were toned, generally with a solution of gold chloride. The effect of toning was to produce a more aesthetically pleasing image as well as a more robust image from the point of view of permanence. Gold toning began with daguerreotypes and was adapted for use with paper-based photographs in the late 1840's. Gustav LeGray, in his 1859 article A New Method of Toning with Chloride of Gold outlines his methods of gold toning in great detail, explaining that "beside the fine qualities of tone which they offer, have the advantage of not changing with time." The two articles by C. Jabez Hughes are among the most comprehensive articles from the 19th century on toning albumen prints. In these articles he outline various advantages and disadvantages of toning formulations, discussing variants of the process and giving practical details on working methods.